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  1. The homeobox transcription factor Engrailed2 (En2) has been studied extensively in neurodevelopment, particularly in the midbrain/hindbrain region and cerebellum, where it exhibits dynamic patterns of expression ...

    Authors: Ian T Rossman, Lulu Lin, Katherine M Morgan, Marissa DiGiovine, Elise K Van Buskirk, Silky Kamdar, James H Millonig and Emanuel DiCicco-Bloom
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2014 5:9
  2. Lateralization of brain structure and function occurs in typical development, and abnormal lateralization is present in various neuropsychiatric disorders. Autism is characterized by a lack of left lateralizat...

    Authors: Jared A Nielsen, Brandon A Zielinski, P Thomas Fletcher, Andrew L Alexander, Nicholas Lange, Erin D Bigler, Janet E Lainhart and Jeffrey S Anderson
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2014 5:8
  3. There has been significant progress in identifying genes that confer risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, the heterogeneity of symptom presentation in ASDs impedes the detection of ASD risk gene...

    Authors: Cara R Damiano, Joseph Aloi, Kaitlyn Dunlap, Caley J Burrus, Maya G Mosner, Rachel V Kozink, Ralph Edward McLaurin, O’Dhaniel A Mullette-Gillman, Ronald McKell Carter, Scott A Huettel, Francis Joseph McClernon, Allison Ashley-Koch and Gabriel S Dichter
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2014 5:7
  4. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) refers to a range of neurodevelopmental conditions characterized by social communication deficits, repetitive behaviours, and restrictive interests. Impaired inhibition has been ...

    Authors: Anji S Vara, Elizabeth W Pang, Krissy AR Doyle-Thomas, Julie Vidal, Margot J Taylor and Evdokia Anagnostou
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2014 5:6
  5. Genetics clearly plays a major role in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), but studies to date are only beginning to characterize the causal genetic variants responsible. Until recently, studies ...

    Authors: Nori Matsunami, Charles H Hensel, Lisa Baird, Jeff Stevens, Brith Otterud, Tami Leppert, Tena Varvil, Dexter Hadley, Joseph T Glessner, Renata Pellegrino, Cecilia Kim, Kelly Thomas, Fengxiang Wang, Frederick G Otieno, Karen Ho, Gerald B Christensen…
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2014 5:5
  6. The higher prevalence of Asperger Syndrome (AS) and other autism spectrum conditions in males has been known for many years. However, recent multiplex immunoassay profiling studies have shown that males and fe...

    Authors: Hannah Steeb, Jordan M Ramsey, Paul C Guest, Pawel Stocki, Jason D Cooper, Hassan Rahmoune, Erin Ingudomnukul, Bonnie Auyeung, Liliana Ruta, Simon Baron-Cohen and Sabine Bahn
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2014 5:4
  7. The measurement of head circumference (HC) is widely used in clinical and research settings as a proxy of neural growth. Although it could aid data collection, no studies have explored either the reliability o...

    Authors: Jillian C Sullivan, Teresa Tavassoli, Kimberly Armstrong, Simon Baron-Cohen and Ayla Humphrey
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2014 5:2
  8. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a range of neurodevelopmental conditions of varying severity, characterized by marked qualitative difficulties in social relatedness, communication, and behavior. Desp...

    Authors: Holly N Cukier, Nicole D Dueker, Susan H Slifer, Joycelyn M Lee, Patrice L Whitehead, Eminisha Lalanne, Natalia Leyva, Ioanna Konidari, Ryan C Gentry, William F Hulme, Derek Van Booven, Vera Mayo, Natalia K Hofmann, Michael A Schmidt, Eden R Martin, Jonathan L Haines…
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2014 5:1
  9. Transcriptome analysis has been used in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to unravel common pathogenic pathways based on the assumption that distinct rare genetic variants or epigenetic modifications affect commo...

    Authors: Paola Sgadò, Giovanni Provenzano, Erik Dassi, Valentina Adami, Giulia Zunino, Sacha Genovesi, Simona Casarosa and Yuri Bozzi
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:51
  10. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be difficult to distinguish from other psychiatric disorders. The clinical assessment of ASD is lengthy, and has to be performed by a specialized clinician. Therefore, a scre...

    Authors: Jonna M Eriksson, Lisa MJ Andersen and Susanne Bejerot
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:49
  11. Autism spectrum conditions (ASC) are associated with deficits in social interaction and communication, alongside repetitive, restricted, and stereotyped behavior. ASC is highly heritable. The gamma-aminobutyri...

    Authors: Varun Warrier, Simon Baron-Cohen and Bhismadev Chakrabarti
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:48
  12. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and epilepsy frequently occur together. Prevalence rates are variable, and have been attributed to age, gender, comorbidity, subtype of pervasive developmental disorder (PDD) an...

    Authors: Claire Amiet, Isabelle Gourfinkel-An, Claudine Laurent, Nicolas Bodeau, Bérengère Génin, Eric Leguern, Sylvie Tordjman and David Cohen
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:47
  13. Synaesthesia is a neurodevelopmental condition in which a sensation in one modality triggers a perception in a second modality. Autism (shorthand for Autism Spectrum Conditions) is a neurodevelopmental conditi...

    Authors: Simon Baron-Cohen, Donielle Johnson, Julian Asher, Sally Wheelwright, Simon E Fisher, Peter K Gregersen and Carrie Allison
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:40
  14. Aberrant MeCP2 expression in brain is associated with neurodevelopmental disorders including autism. In the brain of stressed mouse and autistic human patients, reduced MeCP2 expression is correlated with Mecp2/M...

    Authors: Vichithra RB Liyanage, Robby M Zachariah and Mojgan Rastegar
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:46
  15. Austism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous behavioral disorder or condition characterized by severe impairment of social engagement and the presence of repetitive activities. The molecular etiology of ...

    Authors: Thomas A Lanz, Edward Guilmette, Mark M Gosink, James E Fischer, Lawrence W Fitzgerald, Diane T Stephenson and Mathew T Pletcher
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:45
  16. The objectives of this study were to explore associations between autistic traits and self-reported clinical symptoms in a population with anorexia nervosa (AN). Experimental and self-report evidence reveals s...

    Authors: Kate Tchanturia, Emma Smith, Felicitas Weineck, Eliz Fidanboylu, Nikola Kern, Janet Treasure and Simon Baron Cohen
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:44
  17. Neurobeachin (NBEA) has been identified as a candidate gene for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in several unrelated patients with alterations in the NBEA gene. The exact function of NBEA, a multidomain scaffoldi...

    Authors: Kim Nuytens, Krizia Tuand, Michela Di Michele, Kurt Boonen, Etienne Waelkens, Kathleen Freson and John WM Creemers
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:43
  18. A recent report indicated that numbers of Sutterella spp. are elevated in gastrointestinal biopsies taken from children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We have recently reported changes in the numbers of som...

    Authors: Lv Wang, Claus T Christophersen, Michael J Sorich, Jacobus P Gerber, Manya T Angley and Michael A Conlon
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:42
  19. Lohith et al. (Mol Autism 4:15, 2013) recently identified increased metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) expression in the frontal cortex (FC) of subjects with fragile X syndrome. These results are consi...

    Authors: Øyvind G Rustan, Timothy D Folsom, Mahtab K Yousefi and S Hossein Fatemi
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:41
  20. Our independent cohort studies have consistently shown the reduction of the nuclear receptor RORA (retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-alpha) in lymphoblasts as well as in brain tissues from individuals with...

    Authors: Tewarit Sarachana and Valerie W Hu
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:39
  21. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) is used to measure the auditory evoked magnetic field (AEF), which reflects language-related performance. In young children, however, the simultaneous quantification of the bilater...

    Authors: Yuko Yoshimura, Mitsuru Kikuchi, Kiyomi Shitamichi, Sanae Ueno, Toshio Munesue, Yasuki Ono, Tsunehisa Tsubokawa, Yasuhiro Haruta, Manabu Oi, Yo Niida, Gerard B Remijn, Tsutomu Takahashi, Michio Suzuki, Haruhiro Higashida and Yoshio Minabe
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:38
  22. New technologies enabling genome-wide interrogation have led to a large and rapidly growing number of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) candidate genes. Although encouraging, the volume and complexity of these da...

    Authors: Brett S Abrahams, Dan E Arking, Daniel B Campbell, Heather C Mefford, Eric M Morrow, Lauren A Weiss, Idan Menashe, Tim Wadkins, Sharmila Banerjee-Basu and Alan Packer
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:36
  23. Previously, we identified multiple, rare serotonin (5-HT) transporter (SERT) variants in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Although in our study the SERT Ala56 variant was over-transmitted to ASD p...

    Authors: Travis M Kerr, Christopher L Muller, Mahfuzur Miah, Christopher S Jetter, Rita Pfeiffer, Charisma Shah, Nicole Baganz, George M Anderson, Jacqueline N Crawley, James S Sutcliffe, Randy D Blakely and Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:35
  24. Social communication difficulties represent an autistic trait that is highly heritable and persistent during the course of development. However, little is known about the underlying genetic architecture of thi...

    Authors: Beate St Pourcain, AndrewJ O Whitehouse, Wei Q Ang, Nicole M Warrington, Joseph T Glessner, Kai Wang, Nicholas J Timpson, David M Evans, John P Kemp, Susan M Ring, Wendy L McArdle, Jean Golding, Hakon Hakonarson, Craig E Pennell and George Davey Smith
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:34
  25. The ‘Reading the Mind in the Eyes’ (Eyes) test is an advanced test of theory of mind. It is widely used to assess individual differences in social cognition and emotion recognition across different groups and ...

    Authors: Enrique G Fernández-Abascal, Rosario Cabello, Pablo Fernández-Berrocal and Simon Baron-Cohen
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:33
  26. Beyond the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), associated symptoms of anxiety can cause substantial impairment for individuals affected by ASD and those who care for them.

    Authors: Paul D Chamberlain, Jacqui Rodgers, Michael J Crowley, Sarah E White, Mark H Freeston and Mikle South
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:31
  27. Since RNA expression differences have been reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) for blood and brain, and differential alternative splicing (DAS) has been reported in ASD brains, we determined if there wa...

    Authors: Boryana S Stamova, Yingfang Tian, Christine W Nordahl, Mark D Shen, Sally Rogers, David G Amaral and Frank R Sharp
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:30
  28. Deletion of the Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) critical region (WBSCR), at 7q11.23, causes a developmental disorder commonly characterized by hypersociability and excessive talkativeness and often considered t...

    Authors: Sylvie Tordjman, George M Anderson, David Cohen, Solenn Kermarrec, Michèle Carlier, Yvan Touitou, Pascale Saugier-Veber, Céline Lagneaux, Claire Chevreuil and Alain Verloes
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:29
  29. Rare genetic variation is an important class of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk factors and can implicate biological networks for investigation. Altered serotonin (5-HT) signaling has been implicated in AS...

    Authors: Nicholas G Campbell, Chong-Bin Zhu, Kathryn M Lindler, Brian L Yaspan, Emily Kistner-Griffin, William A Hewlett, Christopher G Tate, Randy D Blakely and James S Sutcliffe
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:28
  30. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental conditions with symptoms manifesting before the age of 3, generally persisting throughout life and affecting social development and communication. Here, ...

    Authors: Jordan M Ramsey, Paul C Guest, Jantine AC Broek, Jeffrey C Glennon, Nanda Rommelse, Barbara Franke, Hassan Rahmoune, Jan K Buitelaar and Sabine Bahn
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:27
  31. We recently reported a terminal deletion of approximately 2.4 Mb at chromosome 8p23.2-pter in a boy with autism. The deleted region contained the DLGAP2 gene that encodes the neuronal post-synaptic density protei...

    Authors: Wei-Hsien Chien, SusanShur-Fen Gau, Hsiao-Mei Liao, Yen-Nan Chiu, Yu-Yu Wu, Yu-Shu Huang, Wen-Che Tsai, Ho-Min Tsai and Chia-Hsiang Chen
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:26
  32. Patients with anorexia may have elevated autistic traits. In this study, we tested test whether patients with anorexia nervosa (anorexia) have an elevated score on a dimensional measure of autistic traits, the...

    Authors: Simon Baron-Cohen, Tony Jaffa, Sarah Davies, Bonnie Auyeung, Carrie Allison and Sally Wheelwright
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:24
  33. Aberrant brain connectivity, especially with long-distance underconnectivity, has been recognized as a candidate pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders. However, a number of diffusion tensor imaging stud...

    Authors: Yuta Aoki, Osamu Abe, Yasumasa Nippashi and Hidenori Yamasue
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:25
  34. Comparative gene expression profiling analysis is useful in discovering differentially expressed genes associated with various diseases, including mental disorders. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group ...

    Authors: Wei-Hsien Chien, SusanShur-Fen Gau, Chun-Houh Chen, Wen-Che Tsai, Yu-Yu Wu, Po-Hsu Chen, Chi-Yung Shang and Chia-Hsiang Chen
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:23
  35. The human oxytocin receptor (hOXTR) is implicated in the etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and is a potential target for therapeutic intervention. Several studies have reported single-nucleotide pol...

    Authors: Wen-Jie Ma, Minako Hashii, Toshio Munesue, Kenshi Hayashi, Kunimasa Yagi, Masakazu Yamagishi, Haruhiro Higashida and Shigeru Yokoyama
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:22
  36. Candidate genes associated with idiopathic forms of autism overlap with other disorders including fragile X syndrome. Our laboratory has previously shown reduction in fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP...

    Authors: SHossein Fatemi, Timothy D Folsom, Rachel E Kneeland, Mahtab K Yousefi, Stephanie B Liesch and Paul D Thuras
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:21
  37. The objective of this study was to examine differences in episodic memory retrieval between individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing (TD) individuals. Previous studies have show...

    Authors: Hidetsugu Komeda, Hirotaka Kosaka, Daisuke N Saito, Keisuke Inohara, Toshio Munesue, Makoto Ishitobi, Makoto Sato and Hidehiko Okazawa
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:20
  38. Adhesion molecules, such as platelet-endothelial adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1), platelet selectin (P-selectin), endothelial selectin (E-selectin), intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell ...

    Authors: Yosuke Kameno, Keiko Iwata, Hideo Matsuzaki, Taishi Miyachi, Kenji J Tsuchiya, Kaori Matsumoto, Yasuhide Iwata, Katsuaki Suzuki, Kazuhiko Nakamura, Masato Maekawa, Masatsugu Tsujii, Toshirou Sugiyama and Norio Mori
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:19
  39. 22q13 deletion syndrome, also known as Phelan-McDermid syndrome, is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by intellectual disability, hypotonia, delayed or absent speech, and autistic features. SHANK3 has b...

    Authors: Latha Soorya, Alexander Kolevzon, Jessica Zweifach, Teresa Lim, Yuriy Dobry, Lily Schwartz, Yitzchak Frank, A Ting Wang, Guiqing Cai, Elena Parkhomenko, Danielle Halpern, David Grodberg, Benjamin Angarita, Judith P Willner, Amy Yang, Roberto Canitano…
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:18
  40. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are relatively common neurodevelopmental conditions whose biological basis has been incompletely determined. Several biochemical markers have been associated with ASDs, but the...

    Authors: Luigi Boccuto, Chin-Fu Chen, Ayla R Pittman, Cindy D Skinner, Heather J McCartney, Kelly Jones, Barry R Bochner, Roger E Stevenson and Charles E Schwartz
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:16
  41. Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a common inherited form of intellectual disability caused by loss of function of the fragile X mental retardation protein. Recent animal studies suggest that upregulated downstream ...

    Authors: Talakad G Lohith, Emily K Osterweil, Masahiro Fujita, Kimberly J Jenko, Mark F Bear and Robert B Innis
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:15
  42. We have recently identified the nuclear hormone receptor RORA (retinoic acid-related orphan receptor-alpha) as a novel candidate gene for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Our independent cohort studies have consis...

    Authors: Tewarit Sarachana and Valerie W Hu
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:14
  43. Since Kanner’s first description of autism there have been a number of changes in approaches to diagnosis with certain key continuities . Since the Fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-...

    Authors: Fred R Volkmar and Brian Reichow
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:13
  44. We are fortunate to have invited commentaries from the laboratories of Dr Cathy Lord and Dr Fred Volkmar offering their perspectives on the new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-5 cri...

    Authors: Joseph D Buxbaum and Simon Baron-Cohen
    Citation: Molecular Autism 2013 4:11

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