Maenner, M.J., Kelly A.S., Jon B., EdS1, Anita W., Mary P., Monica DiRienzo, et al. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years—autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 Sites, United States, 2016. In: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries 69, no. 4 (March 27, 2020), pp. 1–12. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.ss6904a1
National Research Council. Educating children with autism. Washington: National Academies Press; 2001.
Howlin P, Magiati I, Charman T. Systematic review of early intensive behavioral interventions for children with autism. Am J Intellect Dev Disabil. 2009;114(1):23–41.
Dawson, G., Rogers, S., Munson, J., Milani Smith, Jamie Winter, J., Greenson, J., Donaldson, A., Varley, J., Randomized, controlled trial of an intervention for toddlers with autism: The early start denver model. Pediatrics. 2010; 125(1).
Warren Z, McPheeters ML, Sathe N, Foss-Feig JH, Glasser A, Veenstra-Vanderweele J. A systematic review of early intensive intervention for autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics. 2011;127(5):e1303–11. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2011-0426.
American Academy of Pediatrics. Identifying infants and young children with developmental disorders in the medical home: an algorithm for developmental surveillance and screening. Pediatrics. 2006;118(1):405–20.
https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/autism/screening.html Accessed 1/17/2021.
Siu, A. L., and The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF). Screening for autism spectrum disorder in young children US preventive services task force recommendation statement. JAMA J Am Med Assoc. 2016;315(7), 691–696. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2016.0018.
Baron-Cohen S, Allen J, Giliberg C. Can autism be detected at 18 months? The needle, the haystack, and the CHAT. Br J Psychiatry. 1992;161:839–43.
Baron-Cohen S, Cox A, Baird G, et al. Psychological markers in the detection of autism in infancy in a large population. Br J Psychiatry. 1996;168(2):158–63.
Robins DL, Fein D, Barton ML, Green JA. The modified checklist for autism in toddlers: an initial study investigating the early detection of autism and pervasive developmental disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2001;31(2):131–44. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361308094502.
Allison C, Baron-Cohen S, Wheelwright S, et al. The Q-CHAT (Quantitative CHecklist for Autism in Toddlers): a normally distributed quantitative measure of autistic traits at 18–24 months of age: preliminary report. J Autism Dev Disord. 2008;38(8):1414–25.
Ozonoff S, Heung K, Byrd R, Hansen R, Hertz-Picciotto I. The onset of autism: patterns of symptom emergence in the first years of life. Autism Res. 2008;1(6):320–8. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.53.
Weitlauf AS, Vehorn AC, Stone WL, Fein D, Warren ZE. Using the M-CHAT-R/F to identify developmental concerns in a high-risk 18-month-old sibling sample. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2015;36(7):497–502. https://doi.org/10.1097/DBP.0000000000000194.
Robins DL, Casagrande K, Barton M, Chen CMA, Dumont-Mathieu T, Fein D. Validation of the modified checklist for autism in toddlers, revised with follow-up (M-CHAT-R/F). Pediatrics. 2014, 133(1):37–45. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-1813.
Kleinman JM, Robins DL, Ventola PE, Pandey J, Boorstein HC, Esser EL, Barton M. The modified checklist for autism in toddlers: a follow-up study investigating the early detection of autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2008;38(5):827–39. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-007-0450-9.
Swanson A R Warren Z E, Stone W L, Vehorn A C, Dohrmann E, Humberd Q. The diagnosis of autism in community pediatric settings: does advanced training facilitate practice change? Autism. 2014; 18(5):555–561. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361313481507.
Pandey J, Verbalis A, Robins D L, Boorstein H, Klin A, Babitz T, Fein D. Screening for autism in older and younger toddlers with the modified checklist for autism in toddlers. Autism Int J Res Pract. 2008;12(5):513–535. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361308094503.
Sturner R, Howard BJ, Bergmann P, Morrel TL, Walton K. Marks D. Accurate autism screening at the 18-month well-child visit requires different strategies than at 24 months J Autism Relat. Disord. 2017; 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-017-3231-0.
Stenberg N, Bresnahan M, Gunnes N, Hirtz D, Hornig M, Lie KK, Schjlberg S. Identifying children with autism spectrum disorder at 18 months in a general population sample. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2014;28(3):255–62. https://doi.org/10.1111/ppe.12114.
Guthrie W, Wallis K, Bennett A, et al. Accuracy of autism screening in a large pediatric network. Pediatrics. 2019;144(4).
Carbone PS, Campbell K, Wilkes J, Stoddard GJ, Huynh K, Young PC, Gabrielsen TP. Primary care autism screening and later autism diagnosis. Pediatrics. 2020;146(2):e20192314. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2019-2314
Barger BD, Campbell JM, McDonough JD. Prevalence and onset of regression within autism spectrum disorders: a meta-analytic review. J Autism Dev Disord. 2013;43(4):817–28. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-012-1621-x.
Zwaigenbaum L, Bryson SE, Brian J, et al. Stability of diagnostic assessment for autism spectrum disorder between 18 and 36 months in a high-risk cohort. Autism Res. 2016;9(7):790–800.
Zablotsky B, Black LI, Blumberg SJ. Estimated prevalence of children with diagnosed developmental disabilities in the United States, 2014–2016. NCHS Data Brief, No. 291. Hyattsville, MD: CDC, National Center for Health Statistics; 2017;291:1–8.
Zwaigenbaum L, Duku E, Fombonne E, et al. Developmental functioning and symptom severity influence age of diagnosis in Canadian preschool children with autism. Paediatr Child Health. 2019;24(1):e57–65.
Allison C, Auyeung B, Baron-Cohen S. Toward brief “red flags” for autism screening: THE short autism spectrum quotient and the short quantitative checklist in 1,000 cases and 3,000 controls. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2012;51(2):202–12.
CHADIS (Comprehensive Health and Decision Information System). http://www.chadis.com/site/. Accessed 8 Nov 2020.
Howard BJ, Sturner R. Use of an online clinical process support as an aid to identification and management of developmental and mental health problems. Curr Dev Disord Rep. 2017;4(4):108–17.
Sturner R, Howard B, Bergmann P, Morrel T, Andon A, Marks D, Rao P, Landa R. Autism screening with online decision support by primary care pediatricians aided by M-CHAT/F. Pediatrics. 2016;138(3):e20153036. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2015-3036.
Squires J, Bricker D, Potter L. Revision of a parent-completed developmental screening tool: ages and stages questionnaires. J Pediatr Psychol. 1997;22(3):313–28. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/22.3.313.
Lyster R, Gotham K, Guthrie W, Coffing M, Petrak R, Pierce K, Bishop S, Esler A, Hus V, Oti R, Richler J, Risi S, Lord C. The autism diagnostic observation schedule—toddler module: a new module of a standardized diagnostic measure for autism spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 2009;39(9):1305–20.
Mullen EM. The mullen scales of early learning. Circle Pines: AGS American Guidance Service Inc.; 1995.
Filipek PA, Accardo PJ, Baranek GT, Cook EH Jr, Dawson G, Gordon B, et al. The screening and diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorders. J Autism Dev Disord. 1999;29(6):439–84.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. 5th ed. Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing; 2013.
Ringwalt, S. (Comp.). Summary table of states’ and territories’ definitions of/criteria for IDEA Part C eligibility (2015). http://ectacenter.org/~pdfs/topics/earlyid/partc_elig_table.pdf.
Schuirmann DA. A comparison of the two one-sided tests procedure and the power approach for assessing the equivalence of average bioavailability. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm. 1987;15:657–80.
Dinno A. 2017. tost: Two one-sided tests for equivalence. Stata software package. https://www.alexisdinno.com/stata/tost.html
Youden WJ. Index for rating diagnostic tests. Cancer. 1950;3:32–5.
Schisterman EF, Perkins NJ, Liu A, Bondell H. Optimal cutpoint and its corresponding Youden Index to discriminate individuals using pooled blood samples. Epidemiology. 2005;16(1):73–81.
Robins DL. How do we determine the utility of screening tools? Autism. 2020;24(2):271–3. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362361319894170.
Sturner R, Howard B J, Bergmann P Stewart L, Afarian T. Comparison of autism screening in younger and older toddlers. J. Autism Relat Disord. 2017; P 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-017-3230-1
American Academy of Pediatrics, Addressing Mental Health Concerns in Primary Care: A Clinician’s Toolkit. 2010, Revised January 2012.
Sturner R, Bergman P, Howard B, Bet K, Stewart L, Attar S. A Toddler adaptive development and autism screen (TADAS) efficiently improves Identification at the 18-month visit presented at the society for developmental and behavioral pediatrics. 2019; Washington, DC.
Allison C, Matthews FE, Ruta L, Pasco G, Soufer R, Brayne C, Charman T, Baron-Cohen S. Quantitative checklist for autism in toddlers (Q-CHAT). A population screening study with follow-up: the case for multiple time-point screening for autism. BMJ Paediatr Open. 2021;5(1):e000700. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjpo-2020-000700
Cilia F, Carette R, Elbattah M, Dequen G, Guérin JL, Bosche J, Vandromme L, Le Driant B. Computer-aided screening of autism spectrum disorder: eye-tracking study using data visualization and deep learning. JMIR Hum Factors. 2021;8(4):e27706. https://doi.org/10.2196/27706.
Havdahl KA, Bishop SL, Surén P, Øyen AS, Lord C, Pickles A, von Tetzchner S, Schjølberg S, Gunnes N, Hornig M, Lipkin WI, Susser E, Bresnahan M, Magnus P, Stenberg N, Reichborn-Kjennerud T, Stoltenberg C. The influence of parental concern on the utility of autism diagnostic instruments. Autism Res. 2017;10(10):1672–86. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.1817.