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Table 5 Sex differences for key measures for ASD and TD/ID participants (pooled across schedules)

From: The EU-AIMS Longitudinal European Autism Project (LEAP): clinical characterisation

  ASD TD/ID
Males Females Males Females
Autism symptomatology measures
ADI—Social 17.01 (6.78) 15.36 (6.89)
ADI—Communication 13.55 (5.86) 12.58 (5.33)
ADI—RRB 4.57 (2.66) 3.74 (2.52)
ADOS—CSS Total 5.73 (2.83) 4.60 (2.49)
ADOS—CSS SA 6.31 (2.66) 5.46 (2.56)
ADOS—CSS RRB 5.03 (2.86) 4.30 (2.69)
SRS-2 a 71.50 (11.70) 73.65 (12.18) 47.49 (9.97) 48.07 (9.17)
SRS-2 b 62.37 (9.91) 66.48 (11.14) 48.48 (6.08) 46.55 (6.13)
CSBQ a 46.86 (17.01) 46.94 (15.62) 7.55 (12.56) 6.30 (8.50)
ASBQ a 32.78 (16.76) 32.61 (16.55) 14.67 (15.17) 22.11 (20.76)
ASBQ b 30.34 (15.08) 37.37 (15.75) 8.11 (8.49) 7.53 (8.97)
AQ—child 94.26 (18.00) 92.76 (17.39) 45.21 (17.95) 29.70 (10.07)
AQ—adolescents 95.78 (17.66) 96.32 (18.02) 48.92 (20.43) 44.75 (20.67)
AQ—adults 81.03 (18.86) 88.06 (20.78) 49.46 (14.88) 43.10 (14.05)
RBS-R a 17.16 (14.01) 15.76 (13.48) 2.58 (9.43) 2.42 (5.02)
SSP a 138.12 (27.78) 138.15 (26.83) 175.17 (17.00) 175.75 (17.46)
Psychiatric symptom measures
ADHD—inattentiveness a 4.75 (3.13) 4.05 (3.18) 1.34 (2.19) 1.23 (2.58)
ADHD—hyperactivity/impulsivity a 2.98 (2.91) 2.47 (2.71) 0.57 (1.57) 0.54 (1.63)
Anxiety a 48.52 (8.68) 49.14 (9.91) 40.27 (7.75) 38.64 (6.00)
Depression a 51.42 (11.82) 50.44 (8.09) 41.76 (10.47) 39.77 (4.97)
  1. ADI Autism Diagnostic Interview–Revised, ADOS CSS Total, SA, RRB Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule Calibrated Severity Scores for Total, Social Affect and restricted and repetitive behaviours; SRS-2 Social Responsiveness Scale–2, CSBQ, ASBQ Children’s Social Behaviour Questionnaire (parent-report, administered to children, adolescents), Adults’ Social Behaviour Questionnaire (parent-report, administered to adults) scores cannot be pooled across age groups, RBS-R Repetitive Behavior Scale–Revised, SSP Short Sensory Profile, AQ Autism Spectrum Quotient (children, adolescents and adult version; scores cannot be pooled across age group
  2. aParent-report
  3. bSelf-report