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Table 3 Western blotting results for RAC1, homer 1, APP, STEP, NSE, and β-actin and their ratios in BA9 a

From: Impairment of fragile X mental retardation protein-metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 signaling and its downstream cognates ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1, amyloid beta A4 precursor protein, striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase, and homer 1, in autism: a postmortem study in cerebellar vermis and superior frontal cortex

  Control Autistic Change P-value Cohen’s d
Adults      
RAC1/β-actin 0.834 ± 0.554 1.66 ± 0.65 99%↑ 0.031b 1.32b
Homer 1/β-actin 0.512 ± 0.152 0.324± 0.132 37%↓ 0.027b −1.37b
APP 120 kDa/β-actin 0.41 ± 0.23 0.45 ± 0.24 9.8%↑ ns 0.17
APP 88 kDa/β-actin 0.46 ± 0.19 0.53 ± 0.24 15%↑ ns 0.29
STEP 66 kDa/β-actin 0.10 ± 0.07 0.09 ± 0.08 10%↓ ns −0.11
STEP 61 kDa/β-actin 0.73 ± 0.17 0.74 ± 0.18 1.3%↑ ns 0.08
STEP 46 kDa/β-actin 0.0097 ± 0.006 0.035 ± 0.031 261%↑ 0.012b 1.10
STEP 33 kDa/β-actin 0.20 ± 0.13 0.18 ± 0.09 10%↓ ns −0.25
STEP 27 kDa/β-actin 0.20 ± 0.12 0.16 ± 0.12 20%↓ ns −0.29
β-actin 13.2 ± 2.41 13.1 ± 2.31 0.75%↓ ns nd
Children      
RAC1/β-actin 1 ± 0.616 2.8 ± 0.7 180%↑ 0.008b 2.74b
Homer 1/β-actin 0.46 ± 0.17 0.77 ± 0.31 67%↑ ns 1.21
APP 120 kDa/β-actin 0.20 ± 0.07 0.63 ± 0.25 215%↑ 0.032b 2.03b
APP 88 kDa/β-actin 0.22 ± 0.03 0.75 ± 0.26 241%↑ 0.025b 2.54b
STEP 66 kDa/β-actin 0.027 ± 0.026 0.043 ± 0.031 59%↑ ns 0.54
STEP 61 kDa/β-actin 0.59 ± 0.22 0.29 ± 0.24 51%↓ 0.036b −1.23b
STEP 46 kDa/β-actin 0.008 ± 0.006 0.013 ± 0.014 62%↑ ns 0.45
STEP 33 kDa/β-actin 0.017 ± 0.026 0.033 ± 0.023 94%↑ ns 0.64
STEP 27 kDa/β-actin 0.17 ± 0.17 0.23 ± 0.10 35%↑ ns 0.45
β-actin 11.5 ± 1.31 11.7 ± 2.05 1.7%↑ ns nd
Adults      
RAC1/NSE 0.50 ± 0.33 0.95 ± 0.37 90%↑ 0.042b 1.24
Homer 1/NSE 0.34 ± 0.12 0.19 ± 0.10 44%↓ 0.020b −1.43
APP 120 kDa/NSE 0.25 ± 0.12 0.27 ± 0.16 8%↑ ns 0.16
APP 88 kDa/NSE 0.28 ± 0.07 0.32 ± 0.14 14%↑ ns 0.27
STEP 66 kDa/NSE 0.17 ± 0.13 0.14 ± 0.12 18%↓ ns −0.35
STEP 61 kDa/NSE 1.3 ± 0.34 1.18 ± 0.33 9.2%↓ ns −0.25
STEP 46 kDa/NSE 0.017 ± 0.011 0.048 ± 0.041 182%↑ 0.020b 1.02b
STEP 33 kDa/NSE 0.35 ± 0.20 0.28 ± 0.14 20%↓ ns −0.46
STEP 27 kDa/NSE 0.35 ± 0.21 0.25 ± 0.17 29%↓ ns −0.53
NSE 9.14 ± 3.73 8.59 ± 1.41 6%↓ ns nd
Children      
RAC1/NSE 0.61 ± 0.42 1.33 ± 0.21 118%↑ 0.017b 2.09b
Homer 1/NSE 0.28 ± 0.11 0.40 ± 0.15 43%↑ ns 0.94
APP 120 kDa/NSE 0.12 ± 0.04 0.33 ± 0.12 175%↑ 0.017b 2.12b
APP 88 kDa/NSE 0.13 ± 0.004 0.39 ± 0.11 200%↑ 0.012b 3.24b
STEP 66 kDa/NSE 0.072 ± 0.081 0.097 ± 0.072 34%↑ ns 0.33
STEP 61 kDa/NSE 1.03 ± 0.25 0.69 ± 0.60 33%↓ ns −0.68
STEP 46 kDa/NSE 0.021 ± 0.021 0.030 ± 0.033 43%↑ ns 0.37
STEP 33 kDa/NSE 0.050 ± 0.083 0.075 ± 0.054 50%↑ ns 0.37
STEP 27 kDa/NSE 0.49 ± 0.57 0.50 ± 0.26 2%↑ ns 0.031
NSE 6.58 ± 2.48 5.63 ± 1.3 14%↓ ns nd
  1. Values for control and autistic groups are presented as mean ± SD.aRAC1, ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1; APP, amyloid beta A4 precursor protein; STEP, striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase; NSE, neuronal specific enolase; BA9, Brodmann’s area 9; nd, not determined; ns, not significant. bStatistically significant.