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Table 2 Western blotting results for RAC1, homer 1, APP, STEP, NSE, and β-actin and their ratios in the cerebellar vermis a

From: Impairment of fragile X mental retardation protein-metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 signaling and its downstream cognates ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1, amyloid beta A4 precursor protein, striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase, and homer 1, in autism: a postmortem study in cerebellar vermis and superior frontal cortex

  Control Autistic Change P-value Cohen’s d
Adults      
RAC1/β-actin 0.315 ± 0.206 1.3 ± 0.714 313%↑ 0.025b 1.62b
Homer 1/β-actin 0.237 ± 0.303 0.147 ± 0.147 38%↓ ns 0.42
APP 120 kDa/β-actin 0.091 ± 0.029 0.050 ± 0.016 45%↓ 0.018b −2.04b
APP 88 kDa/β-actin 0.08 ± 0.06 0.03 ± 0.02 63%↓ ns 1.26
STEP 66 kDa/β-actin 0.136 ± 0.116 0.025 ± 0.029 82%↓ 0.023b −1.51b
STEP 61 kDa/β-actin 0.015 ± 0.028 0.003 ± 0.004 80%↓ ns −0.67
STEP 46 kDa/β-actin 0.03 ± 0.034 0.034 ± 0.041 13%↑ ns 0.11
STEP 33 kDa/β-actin 0.55 ± 0.38 0.17 ± 0.13 69%↓ 0.024b −1.63b
STEP 27 kDa/β-actin 0.70 ± 0.67 0.53 ± 0.39 24%↓ ns −0.32
β-actin 10.2 ± 1.67 9.06 ± 3.1 11%↓ ns nd
Children      
RAC1/β-actin 1.09 ± 0.545 1.1 ± 0.471 0.9%↑ ns 0.01
Homer 1/β-actin 0.188 ± 0.13 0.218 ± 0.109 16%↑ ns 0.26
APP 120 kDa/β-actin 0.071 ± 0.029 0.077 ± 0.033 8.4%↑ ns 0.19
APP 88 kDa/β-actin 0.084 ± 0.055 0.100 ± 0.071 19%↑ ns 0.25
STEP 66 kDa/β-actin 0.01 ± 0.008 0.059 ± 0.091 490%↑ ns 0.64
STEP 61 kDa/β-actin 0.002 ± 0.002 0.023 ± 0.031 1050%↑ ns 1.15
STEP 46 kDa/β-actin 0.0022 ± 0.0011 0.024 ± 0.024 991%↑ ns 1.16
STEP 33 kDa/β-actin 0.057 ± 0.085 0.13 ± 0.17 128%↑ ns 0.51
STEP 27 kDa/β-actin 0.70 ± 0.68 0.53 ± 0.38 24%↓ ns −0.72
β-actin 9.48 ± 1.11 9.52 ± 3.71 0.4%↑ ns nd
Adults      
RAC1/NSE 0.23 ± 0.16 0.93 ± 0.49 304%↑ 0.016b 1.73b
Homer 1/NSE 0.18 ± 0.24 0.099 ± 0.11 45%↓ ns −0.46
APP 120 kDa/NSE 0.062 ± 0.021 0.031 ± 0.008 50%↓ 0.012b −2.40b
APP 88 kDa/NSE 0.06 ± 0.05 0.02 ± 0.01 67%↓ ns −1.22
STEP 66 kDa/NSE 0.18 ± 0.14 0.032 ± 0.04 82%↓ 0.018b −1.59b
STEP 61 kDa/NSE 0.018 ± 0.035 0.004 ± 0.005 78%↓ ns −0.21
STEP 46 kDa/NSE 0.039 ± 0.041 0.037 ± 0.042 5.1%↓ ns −0.59
STEP 33 kDa/NSE 0.72 ± 0.49 0.21 ± 0.17 71%↓ 0.020b −1.68b
STEP 27 kDa/NSE 1.27 ± 0.82 0.44 ± 0.38 65%↓ 0.038b −1.40b
NSE 7.42 ± 1.26 7.69 ± 1.3 3.6%↑ ns nd
Children      
RAC1/NSE 0.84 ± 0.51 0.69 ± 0.23 18%↓ ns −0.38
Homer 1/NSE 0.13 ± 0.09 0.16 ± 0.07 23%↑ ns 0.33
APP 120 kDa/NSE 0.040 ± 0.025 0.056 ± 0.021 40%↑ ns 0.70
APP 88 kDa/NSE 0.054 ± 0.025 0.072 ± 0.053 33%↑ ns 0.42
STEP 66 kDa/NSE 0.014 ± 0.011 0.102 ± 0.165 628%↑ ns 0.61
STEP 61 kDa/NSE 0.0024 ± 0.001 0.037 ± 0.054 1441%↑ ns 0.96
STEP 46 kDa/NSE 0.003 ± 0.002 0.03 ± 0.047 900%↑ ns 1.02
STEP 33 kDa/NSE 0.078 ± 0.12 0.23 ± 0.33 194%↑ ns 0.55
STEP 27 kDa/NSE 0.36 ± 0.24 0.99 ± 0.93 175%↑ ns 0.77
NSE 6.97 ± 0.84 6.23 ± 1.53 10.6%↓ ns nd
  1. Values for control and autistic groups are presented as mean ± SD aRAC1, ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1; APP, amyloid beta A4 precursor protein; STEP, striatal-enriched protein tyrosine phosphatase; NSE, neuronal specific enolase; nd, not determined; ns, not significant. bStatistically significant.