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Table 1 Participant demographics

From: An investigation of the diet, exercise, sleep, BMI, and health outcomes of autistic adults

Characteristics Autism
(n = 1183)
Controls
(n = 1203)
p-values
(signif. level)
Age (years), mean (SD) 41.04 (14.41) 41.86 (15.59) 0.344
Age (years), categories, N (%)    
 16–29 303 (25.61) 311 (25.85)  
 30–39 250 (21.13) 240 (19.95)  
 40–49 252 (21.30) 252 (20.95)  
 50–59 214 (18.09) 206 (17.12)  
 60–69 113 (9.55) 127 (10.56)  
 70+ 25 (2.11) 52 (4.32)  
 Missing 26 (2.20) 15 (1.25)  
Biological sex, N (%)    4.48 × 10–3 (**)
 Female 746 (63.06) 825 (68.58)  
 Male 437 (36.94) 378 (31.42)  
 Missing 0 0  
Ethnicity, N (%)    6.79 × 10–3 (**)
 White 1045 (88.33) 1020 (84.78)  
 Non-White 135 (11.42) 183 (15.21)  
 Mixed Race 77 (6.51) 73 (6.07)  
 Asian 18 (1.52) 43 (3.57)  
 Latin American/Hispanic 7 (0.59) 23 (1.91)  
 Arab/Middle Eastern 0 17 (1.41)  
 Jewish 16 (1.35) 17 (1.41)  
 African/Black/Caribbean 6 (0.51) 9 (0.75)  
 Other 11 (0.93) 1(0.08)  
 Missing 3 (0.25) 0  
Education, N (%)    2.68 × 10–17 (***)
 No formal qualifications 57 (4.82) 14 (1.16)  
 Further vocational qualifications 215 (18.17) 138 (11.47)  
 Secondary school/high school 211 (17.84) 171 (14.21)  
 University undergraduate 354 (29.92) 354 (29.43)  
 University postgraduate 344 (29.08) 523 (43.47)  
 Missing 2 (0.17) 3 (0.25)  
Country of residence    2.59 × 10–5 (***)
 UK 842 (71.17) 759 (63.09)  
 USA 120 (10.14) 174 (14.46)  
 Germany 31 (2.62) 33 (2.74)  
 Australia 33 (2.79) 20 (1.66)  
 Other 156 (13.19) 214 (17.79)  
 Missing 1 (0.08) 3 (0.25)  
Body mass index (kg/m2), mean (SD) 27.07 (7.52) 26.05 (6.22) 2.25 × 10–3 (***)
Body mass index, categories, N (%)    
 Underweight 73 (6.32) 35 (2.96)  
 Normal weight 459 (39.71) 608 (51.35)  
 Overweight 308 (26.64) 300 (25.34)  
 Obese 316 (27.34) 241 (20.36)  
 Missing 27 (2.28) 19 (1.58)  
Most frequent smoking, N (%)    0.030 (*)
 Never 802 (67.79) 776 (64.51)  
 Monthly 2 (0.17) 9 (0.75)  
 Weekly 25 (2.11) 40 (3.33)  
 Daily 354 (29.92) 377 (31.34)  
 Missing 0 1 (0.08)  
Current alcohol frequency, N (%)    6.54 × 10–21 (***)
 0 days per week 693 (58.58) 465 (38.65)  
 1–2 days per week 300 (25.36) 470 (39.07)  
 3–5 days per week 119 (10.06) 183 (15.21)  
 6–7 days per week 70 (5.92) 84 (6.98)  
 Missing 1 (0.08) 1 (0.08)  
Intellectual disability (ID), N (%)    5.40 × 10–4 (***)
 Self-identified 21 (1.78) 4 (0.33)  
  1. Significance level: *** (p < 0.001), ** (p < 0.01), * (p < 0.05), ▲ (p < 0.10)
  2. SD standard deviation
  3. p values were from Pearson’s Chi-square test (categorical) or from a Mann–Whitney U test (means)
  4. These are demographic data before imputation. The results remain highly similar after imputation