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Table 5 Relative risk statistics, with 99.99% confidence intervals for the prevalence of sleep disorders in each syndrome in comparison to all other syndromes

From: Sleep disorders in rare genetic syndromes: a meta-analysis of prevalence and profile

  Sleep related breathing difficulties Excessive daytime sleepiness Sleep enuresis Sleep bruxism ‘General’ sleep difficulty
Angelman / − 0.32 (0.16–0.63) [SMS] + 7.22 (2.63–19.86) [PWS] / + 3.18 (1.72–5.90) [JS]
+ 2.12 (1.30–3.45) [WS]
+ 2.06 (1.28–3.32) [PWS]
+ 2.00 (1.25–3.20) [FXS]
CHARGE + 6.67 (1.85–24.08) [NF] / / / /
Cornelia de Lange − 0.30 (0.17–0.54) [MPSII]
− 0.32 (0.18–0.58) [MPSIV]
− 0.43 (0.23–0.82) [Hurler]
− 0.33 (0.17–0.65) [SMS]  / / /
Down + 5.33 (1.44–19.72) [NF]
− 0.42 (0.26–0.67) [MPSII]
− 0.44 (0.27–0.73) [MPSIV]
− 0.42 (0.23–0.75) [SMS] / + 3.00 (1.12–8.04) [WS] /
Fragile X / / + 4.22 (1.46–12.21) [PWS] / − 0.37 (0.24–0.57) [SMS]
− 0.42 (0.27–0.66) [MPSIIIB]
− 0.48 (0.30–0.76) [Rett]
− 0.50 (0.31–0.80) [AS]
− 0.54 (0.33–0.87) [Hurler]
Hurler + 8.83 (2.50–31.18) [NF]
− 0.69 (0.49–0.96) [MPSII]
− 0.74 (0.52–1.04) [MPSIV]
/ / / + 2.95 (1.58–5.53) [JS]
+ 1.97 (1.20–3.24) [WS]
+ 1.91 (1.17–3.11) [PWS]
+ 1.86 (1.15–3.00) [FXS]
Jacobsen / / / / − 0.23 (0.13–0.42) [SMS]
− 0.27 (0.15–0.48) [MPSIIIB]
− 0.30 (0.16–0.56) [Rett]
− 0.31 (0.17–0.58) [AS]
− 0.34 (0.18–0.63) [Hurler]
MPS II + 12.83 (3.72–44.29) [NF]
+ 3.35 (1.85–6.05) [CdLs]
+ 2.41 (1.49–3.90) [DS]
/ / / /
MPS IIIB / / / / + 3.77 (2.07–6.88) [JS]
+ 2.52 (1.58–4.00) [WS]
+ 2.44 (1.55–3.84) [PWS]
+ 2.37 (1.52–3.70) [FXS]
+ 1.84 (1.27–2.67) [TSC]
MPS IV + 12.00 (3.47–41.56) [NF]
+ 3.13 (1.72–5.70) [CdLs]
+ 2.25 (1.38–3.68) [DS]
/ / / /
Neurofibromatosis − 0.08 (0.02–0.27) [MPSII]
− 0.08 (0.02–0.29) [MPSIV]
− 0.10 (0.03–0.37) [Hurler]
− 0.13 (0.04–0.45) [WS]
− 0.14 (0.04–0.50) [PWS]
− 0.15 (0.04–0.54) [CHARGE]
− 0.19 (0.05–0.69) [DS]
/  / / /
Prader–Willi + 7.17 (2.00–25.72) [NF] / − 0.14 (0.05–0.38) [AS]
− 0.24 (0.08–0.69) [FXS]
/ − 0.36 (0.23–0.55) [SMS]
− 0.41 (0.26–0.65) [MPSIIIB]
− 0.47 (0.29–0.75) [Rett]
− 0.49 (0.30–0.78) [AS]
− 0.52 (0.32–0.85) [Hurler]
Rett / / / / + 3.32 (1.80–6.13) [JS]
+ 2.21 (1.37–3.58) [WS]
+ 2.15 (1.34–3.44) [PWS]
+ 2.09 (1.31–3.31) [FXS]
Smith–Magenis / + 3.16 (1.59–6.29) [AS]
+ 3.00 (1.54–5.86) [CdLs]
+ 2.40 (1.33–4.35) [DS]
/ / + 4.32 (2.40–7.77) [JS]
+ 2.88 (1.84–4.50) [WS]
+ 2.79 (1.80–4.33) [PWS]
+ 2.71 (1.77–4.17) [FXS]
+ 2.11 (1.49–3.00) [TSC]
Tuberous Sclerosis Complex / / / / − 0.47 (0.33–0.67) [SMS]
− 0.54 (0.37–0.79) [MPSIIIB]
Williams + 7.83 (2.20–27.90) [NF] / / − 0.33 (0.12–0.89) [DS] − 0.35 (0.22–0.54) [SMS]
− 0.40 (0.25–0.63) [MPSIIIB]
− 0.45 (0.28–0.73) [Rett]
− 0.51 (0.31–0.83) [Hurler]
− 0.57 (0.29–0.77) [AS]
  1. + sleep disorder is significantly more prevalent than in one other syndrome; − sleep disorder is significantly less prevalent than in one other syndrome. / sleep disorder not assessed in that syndrome, or no difference in relative risk. There were no differences between syndromes in relative risk for insomnia