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Table 2 Scores on measures of autistic traits, empathy and emotion recognition abilities in EP young adults and term-born controls

From: Extremely preterm birth and autistic traits in young adulthood: the EPICure study

  Extremely preterm Term controls EP vs controls Effect size measured by Cohen’s d
  Male Female All Male Female All Unadjusted Adjusted for sex, age & SES Adjusted for sex, age, IQ & SES
  Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean difference (95% CI) p Mean difference (95% CI) p Mean difference (95% CI) p  
BAPQa              
 Mean Aloof 2.84 ± 0.86
(n = 53)
2.91 ± 0.85
(n = 64)
2.88 ± 0.85
(n = 117)
2.44 ± 0.78
(n = 22)
2.33 ± 0.79
(n = 39)
2.37 ± 0.78
(n = 61)
0.51
(0.25, 0.77)
 < 0.001+ 0.43
(0.18, 0.68)
0.001+ 0.32
(0.03, 0.62)
0.033 0.62
 Mean Rigid 3.10 ± 0.77
(n = 51)
2.90 ± 0.78
(n = 62)
2.99 ± 0.78
(n = 113)
2.33 ± 0.59
(n = 23)
2.47 ± 0.58
(n = 38)
2.42 ± 0.58
(n = 61)
0.59
(0.33, 0.85)
 < 0.001+ 0.54
(0.28, 0.80)
 < 0.001+ 0.35
(0.05, 0.65)
0.024 0.72
 Mean Pragmatic 3.28 ± 0.86
(n = 50)
3.30 ± 0.84
(n = 63)
3.29 ± 0.85
(n = 113)
2.82 ± 0.89
(n = 22)
2.63 ± 0.71
(n = 39)
2.70 ± 0.77
(n = 61)
0.57
(0.35, 0.80)
 < 0.001+ 0.49
(0.27, 0.71)
 < 0.001+ 0.26
(0.01, 0.51)
0.038 0.80
 Mean total score 3.07 ± 0.74
(n = 48)
3.03 ± 0.70
(n = 61)
3.05 ± 0.72
(n = 109)
2.50 ± 0.63
(n = 21)
2.49 ± 0.63
(n = 38)
2.49 ± 0.62
(n = 59)
0.55
(0.34, 0.77)
 < 0.001+ 0.47
(0.26, 0.68)
 < 0.001+ 0.28
(0.03, 0.53)
0.026 0.81
EQb              
 Mean total score 35.88 ± 11.48
(n = 43)
40.61 ± 13.98
(n = 59)
38.62 ± 13.13
(n = 102)
40.45 ± 13.21
(n = 22)
47.89 ± 10.65
(n = 38)
45.17 ± 12.10
(n = 60)
− 6.55
(− 10.65, − 2.45)
0.002+ − 5.55
(− 9.50, − 1.60)
0.006+ − 1.03
(− 5.46, 3.39)
0.645 0.51
FEFA2c              
 Total score 0.72 ± 0.10
(n = 56)
0.76 ± 0.10
(n = 67)
0.74 ± 0.11
(n = 123)
0.78 ± 0.06
(n = 24)
0.84 ± 0.06
(n = 39)
0.82 ± 0.07
(n = 63)
− 0.08
(− 0.10, − 0.05)
 < 0.001+ − 0.07
(− 0.10, − 0.04)
 < 0.001+ − 0.01
(− 0.04, 0.02)
0.490 0.80
  1. aBAPQ indicates Broader Autism Phenotype Questionnaire
  2. bEQ indicates Empathy Quotient
  3. cFEFA2 indicates Frankfurt Test and Training of Facial Affect Recognition
  4. *p < 0.05; +Significant after Bonferroni correction (p < 0.013 BAPQ; p < 0.006 FEFA; no correction for EQ)