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Table 2 Inferential statistics and effect sizes for the group comparisons

From: Autistic traits, systemising, empathising, and theory of mind in transgender and non-binary adults

Comparison Measure and control study Direction of Effect t p Cohen’s d 95% CI for d
Transgender men vs. control females AQ (vs. Baron-Cohen et al.) [34] Transgender men > control females 5.54 < 0.001 0.77 [0.53, 1.00]
  AQ (vs. Ruzich et al.) [35] Transgender men > control females 3.80 < 0.001 0.47 [0.24, 0.70]
  SQ-Short [31] Transgender men > control females 4.88 < 0.001 0.62 [0.38, 0.86]
  EQ-Short [31] Transgender men < control females − 4.58 < 0.001 − 0.70 [− 0.94, − 0.46]
  EQ-10 [32] Transgender men < control females − 3.93 < 0.001 − 0.50 [− 0.73, − 0.25]
  Eyes Test [36] Transgender men < control females − 2.29 0.025 − 0.36 [− 0.59, − 0.13]
Non-binary AFAB  vs. control females AQ (vs. Baron-Cohen et al.) [34] Non-binary AFAB > control females 11.16 < 0.001 1.24 [1.03, 1.44]
  AQ ( vs. Ruzich et al.) [35] Non-binary AFAB > control females 8.98 < 0.001 0.89 [0.69, 1.09]
  SQ-Short [31] Non-binary AFAB > control females 5.90 < 0.001 0.66 [0.45, 0.87]
  EQ-Short [31] Non-binary AFAB < control females − 5.98 < 0.001 − 0.76 [− 0.97, − 0.55]
  EQ-10 [32] Non-binary AFAB < control females − 4.86 < 0.001 − 0.51 [− 0.71, − 0.31]
  Eyes Test [36] Non-binary AFAB < control females − 2.72 0.008 − 0.32 [− 0.51, − 0.12]
Transgender women  vs. control males AQ (vs. Baron-Cohen et al.) [34] Transgender women > control males 0.84 0.993 0.01 [− 0.20, 0.22]
  AQ (vs. Ruzich et al.) [35] Transgender women < control males − 1.44 0.152 − 0.13 [− 0.34, 0.07]
  SQ-Short [31] Transgender women < control males − 0.43 0.666 − 0.05 [− 0.27, 0.17]
  EQ-Short [31] Transgender women > control males 3.22 0.002 0.38 [0.16, 0.60]
  EQ-10 [32] Transgender women > control males 3.21 0.002 0.34 [0.14, 0.55]
  Eyes Test [36] Transgender women < control males − 2.27 0.026 − 0.22 [− 0.42, − 0.02]
Non-binary AMAB  vs. control males AQ (vs. Baron-Cohen et al.) [34] Non-binary AMAB > control males 1.67 0.102 0.22 [− 0.07, 0.51]
  AQ (vs. Ruzich et al.) [35] Non-binary AMAB > control males 0.44 0.661 0.05 [− 0.23, 0.33]
  SQ-Short [31] Non-binary AMAB < control males − 0.88 0.384 − 0.13 [− 0.43, 0.16]
  EQ-Short [31] Non-binary AMAB > control males 1.83 0.074 0.29 [− 0.00, 0.59]
  EQ-10 [32] Non-binary AMAB > control males 2.27 0.028 0.30 [0.02, 0.59]
  Eyes Test [36] Non-binary AMAB < control males − 0.21 0.832 − 0.03 [− 0.31, 0.24]
  1. AFAB = individuals assigned female at birth; AMAB = individuals assigned male at birth