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Table 1 Twenty fMRI action observation studies (with 24 experiments) included in the meta-analysis

From: Differential mirror neuron system (MNS) activation during action observation with and without social-emotional components in autism: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies

Demographic Data Experimental Design
Study Sub-groups Sample size Age group Mean IQ (SD) Ratio of sex (F:M) Symptom severity measure Symptom severity score (SD) Subject matching criteria Action observation stimuli Body part Social-emotional component Baseline
Bastiaansen(2011) [68] ASD-HTD 2121 Adult 102.5 (14.81)101.5 (17.4) 0:210:21 ADOS (social) 7.19 (2.46) Age, IQ, gender One actor displayed facial expressions (happy, neutral, disgusted) Face Yes Fixation cross
Bookheimer (2008) [69] ASD-HTD 1212 Adolescent N/A 0:120:12 ADOS (total) 11.3 (N/A) Age, gender One actor displayed a facial expression (neutral) Face Yes Matching oval shapes
Carter (2012) [78] ASD-HTD 1213 Adolescent 112.1 (15.19)116.6 (10.28) 3:92:11 ADOS (social) 7.25 (1.22) Age, IQ, gender Two actors displayed bodily gestures in social situations Full-body Yes Fixation cross
Cole (2019) [59] ASD-HTD 2020 Adult N/A 8:128:12 AQ 37.4 (8.04) Age, gender, education One actor manipulated an object (inserting poker chips into a box) Full-body No Fixation cross
Critchley (2000) [70] ASD-HTD 99 Adult 102 (15)116 (10) 0:90:9 ADI N/A Age, IQ, gender One actor displayed facial expressions (happy, neutral, angry) Face Yes Observation of neutral face
Dalton (2005) [71] ASD-HTD 1212 Adolescent 94 (19.47)N/A 0:120:12 ADI-R N/A Age, gender One actor displayed facial expressions (happy, fear, angry) Face Yes Observation of neutral face
Dapretto (2006) [72] ASD-HTD 55 Adolescent 92.0 (19.4)105.2 (12.8) 0:50:5 ADOS (social) 8.4 (3.1) Age, IQ, gender One actor displayed facial expressions (happy, sad, angry, fear, neutral) Face Yes Fixation cross
Davies (2011) [73] ASD-HTD 1616 Adolescent 106.2 (20.3)105.6 (16.0) 2:142:14 ADOS (total) 12 (4) Age, IQ, gender One actor displayed facial expressions (happy, angry, fear, neutral) Face Yes Fixation cross
Deeley (2007) [74] ASD-HTD 99 Adult 114 (12)120 (18) 0:90:9 ADOS; ADI-R N/A IQ, gender Experiment 1:One actor displayed a facial expression (fear) Face Yes Fixation cross
          Experiment 2:One actor displayed a facial expression (disgust)    
          Experiment 3:One actor displayed a facial expression (happy)    
Freitag (2008) [60] ASD-HTD 1313 Adolescent 101.2 (21.2)112.1 (18.0) 2:132:13 ADI-R (social) 11.3 (4.3) Age, IQ, gender One point-light walker displayed bodily gesture (walking) Full-body No Scrambled point-light displays
Greimel (2010) [75] ASD-HTD 1515 Adolescent 112.7 (11.3)109.9 (17.3) 0:150:15 ADOS, ADI-R N/A Age, IQ, gender One actor displayed facial expressions (happy, sad) Face Yes Neutral faces
Grèzes (2009) [61] ASD-HTD 1212 Adult 102 (20.6)119 (6.6) 2:100:12 N/A N/A Age, IQ, gender One actor displayed bodily emotional expression (fear) Full-body Yes Neutral bodily expression
Hubbard (2012) [62] ASD-HTD 1313 Adolescent 110116 3:103:10 ADOS (social) 7.9 (3) Age, IQ, gender Experiment 1:One actor displayed a random hand gesture Hand No Still frame (a kitchen) without presence of hands
Experiment 2:One actor (without face) displayed communicative gesture Hand Yes
Libero (2014) [63] ASD-HTD 2122 Adult 116.3 (12.8)117.5 (8.8) 4:175:17 ADOS, ADI-R N/A Age, IQ, gender One actor manipulated objects (telephone, spoon, camera, cup) Full-body No Fixation cross
Marsh (2011) [64] ASD-HTD 1819 Adult 110.2 (16.0)113.9 (13.8) N/A ADOS (social) 6.17 (3.47) Age, gender One actor manipulated an object (a ball) Hand No Moving shapes without hand action
Martineau (2010) [66] ASD-HTD 78 Adult 93.3 (9.5)N/A 0:70:8 N/A N/A Age, education One actor displayed hand flexion-extension movement Hand No Picture of a static hand
McKay (2012) [67] ASD-HTD 1010 Adult 125 (7.01)124.8 (6.75) N/A N/A N/A Age, IQ One point-light walker displayed bodily gesture (walking) Full-body No Scrambled point-light displays
Schneider (2013) [76] ASD-HTD 2828 Adult 109.1 (9.2)114.0 (9.6) 13:1513:15 AQ 37.69 (7.84) Age, gender, education One actor displayed facial expressions (disgust, happy, fear, anger) Face Yes Neutral facial expression
Schulte-Ruther (2011) [77] ASD-HTD 1818 Adult 106.6 (10.5)112.1 (10.4) 0:180:18 AQ 33.6 (10.2) Age, IQ, gender One actor displayed facial expressions (happy, sad) Face Yes Neutral facial expression
Wadsworth (2018) [65] ASD-HTD 1315 Adolescent 109 (17.3)102 (16.2) 2:114:11 AQ 72 (34.36) Age, IQ Experiment 1:One actor manipulated daily objects (e.g., an iron) Full-body No Fixation cross
  Experiment 2:More than one actors displayed communicative gestures Full-body Yes  
  1. ASD-H High-functioning autism spectrum disorder, TD Typically-developing, ADOS Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, ADI-R Autism Diagnostic Interview—Revised, Age chronological age only, IQ full-scale IQ only, Education years of education
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