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Table 3 Sensory subgroup comparisons on key clinical variables of interest (N = 332)

From: Dissecting the phenotypic heterogeneity in sensory features in autism spectrum disorder: a factor mixture modelling approach

 

Mean (SD)

Effect size

 

Subgroup 1: severe (N = 24)

Subgroup 2: moderate (N = 51)

Subgroup 3: low (N = 257)

G1 vs. G2

G1 vs. G3

G2 vs. G3

Sex (males:females); % of females

8:16 (33%)

13:38 (25%)

74:183 (28%)

Age

16.0 (6.3)

14.3 (5.7)

16.3 (5.6)

0.30

− 0.06

− 0.35

Full-scale IQ

87.3 (17.9)

94.1 (22.8)

97.6 (20.6)

− 0.33

− 0.50

− 0.17

Tactile sensitivity

22.3 (6.6)

23.8 (6.9)

27.5 (5.5)

− 0.25

− 0.86

− 0.61

Taste/smell sensitivity

12.8 (5.3)

13.6 (5.2)

15.4 (4.9)

− 0.17

− 0.53

− 0.37

Movement sensitivity

4.9 (2.1)

8.5 (2.3)

13.5 (1.9)

− 1.05

− 2.52

− 1.47

Underresponsive/seeks sensation

21.1 (5.1)

23.6 (6.4)

27.0 (6.2)

− 0.38

− 0.92

− 0.53

Auditory filtering

13.1 (3.8)

14.3 (4.6)

17.8 (5.2)

− 0.22

− 0.89

− 0.67

Low energy/weak

17.6 (7.5)

19.3 (7.8)

24.4 (6.6)

− 0.24

− 0.94

− 0.70

Visual/auditory sensitivity

13.5 (3.1)

15.5 (4.9)

18.8 (4.9)

− 0.40

− 1.05

− 0.65

Total score

104.1 (21.0)

118.8 (23.5)

144.0 (24.5)

− 0.54

− 1.46

− 0.92

ADOS CSS social affect

6.7 (2.5)

6.9 (2.5)

6.3 (2.6)

− 0.07

0.14

0.21

ADOS CSS-RRB

5.2 (2.8)

5.1 (2.9)

4.8 (2.8)

0.03

0.14

0.11

SRS-2 SCI

82.2 (6.9)

79.4 (11.8)

71.8 (11.5)

0.24

0.88

0.65

RBS-R stereotyped

5.6 (4.9)

4.8 (4.2)

3.2 (3.6)

0.30

0.72

0.42

RBS-R self-injurious

2.1 (3.6)

2.0 (3.1)

1.3 (2.1)

0.02

0.34

0.32

RBS-R compulsive

4.1 (3.4)

3.0 (2.5)

2.3 (2.7)

0.39

0.64

0.25

RBS-R ritualistic/sameness

12.2 (8.1)

10.4 (7.1)

6.3 (5.3)

0.29

0.96

0.67

RBS-R restricted

3.6 (2.3)

2.9 (2.2)

2.4 (1.9)

0.36

0.61

0.25

Anxiety

2.7 (1.5)

2.7 (1.6)

2.5 (1.3)

− 0.02

0.16

0.18

Inattention

6.5 (2.3)

5.6 (2.4)

4.4 (3.2)

0.31

0.69

0.39

Hyperactivity/impulsivity

4.3 (3.2)

3.7 (2.9)

2.7 (2.8)

0.18

0.53

0.35

VABS socialisation

57.2 (15.43)

66.6 (17.7)

71.1 (15.9)

− 0.57

− 0.84

− 0.28

VABS daily living

61.6 (12.56)

70.1 (17.1)

73.8 (16.9)

− 0.51

− 0.72

− 0.22

VABS communication

68.8 (14.72)

75.3 (19.5)

75.3 (16.8)

− 0.38

− 0.38

0.00

VABS ABC

60.1 (12.62)

68.2 (16.1)

71.4 (14.7)

− 0.54

− 0.75

− 0.21

  1. Effect size estimates = subgroup mean difference/overall SD, ES 0.2–0.3 = small, ES 0.5 = medium, ES > 0.8 = large, RRB Restricted and repetitive behaviours, VABS Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales-II, ABC Adaptive Behaviour Composite