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Table 3 Sensory subgroup comparisons on key clinical variables of interest (N = 332)

From: Dissecting the phenotypic heterogeneity in sensory features in autism spectrum disorder: a factor mixture modelling approach

  Mean (SD) Effect size
  Subgroup 1: severe (N = 24) Subgroup 2: moderate (N = 51) Subgroup 3: low (N = 257) G1 vs. G2 G1 vs. G3 G2 vs. G3
Sex (males:females); % of females 8:16 (33%) 13:38 (25%) 74:183 (28%)
Age 16.0 (6.3) 14.3 (5.7) 16.3 (5.6) 0.30 − 0.06 − 0.35
Full-scale IQ 87.3 (17.9) 94.1 (22.8) 97.6 (20.6) − 0.33 − 0.50 − 0.17
Tactile sensitivity 22.3 (6.6) 23.8 (6.9) 27.5 (5.5) − 0.25 − 0.86 − 0.61
Taste/smell sensitivity 12.8 (5.3) 13.6 (5.2) 15.4 (4.9) − 0.17 − 0.53 − 0.37
Movement sensitivity 4.9 (2.1) 8.5 (2.3) 13.5 (1.9) − 1.05 − 2.52 − 1.47
Underresponsive/seeks sensation 21.1 (5.1) 23.6 (6.4) 27.0 (6.2) − 0.38 − 0.92 − 0.53
Auditory filtering 13.1 (3.8) 14.3 (4.6) 17.8 (5.2) − 0.22 − 0.89 − 0.67
Low energy/weak 17.6 (7.5) 19.3 (7.8) 24.4 (6.6) − 0.24 − 0.94 − 0.70
Visual/auditory sensitivity 13.5 (3.1) 15.5 (4.9) 18.8 (4.9) − 0.40 − 1.05 − 0.65
Total score 104.1 (21.0) 118.8 (23.5) 144.0 (24.5) − 0.54 − 1.46 − 0.92
ADOS CSS social affect 6.7 (2.5) 6.9 (2.5) 6.3 (2.6) − 0.07 0.14 0.21
ADOS CSS-RRB 5.2 (2.8) 5.1 (2.9) 4.8 (2.8) 0.03 0.14 0.11
SRS-2 SCI 82.2 (6.9) 79.4 (11.8) 71.8 (11.5) 0.24 0.88 0.65
RBS-R stereotyped 5.6 (4.9) 4.8 (4.2) 3.2 (3.6) 0.30 0.72 0.42
RBS-R self-injurious 2.1 (3.6) 2.0 (3.1) 1.3 (2.1) 0.02 0.34 0.32
RBS-R compulsive 4.1 (3.4) 3.0 (2.5) 2.3 (2.7) 0.39 0.64 0.25
RBS-R ritualistic/sameness 12.2 (8.1) 10.4 (7.1) 6.3 (5.3) 0.29 0.96 0.67
RBS-R restricted 3.6 (2.3) 2.9 (2.2) 2.4 (1.9) 0.36 0.61 0.25
Anxiety 2.7 (1.5) 2.7 (1.6) 2.5 (1.3) − 0.02 0.16 0.18
Inattention 6.5 (2.3) 5.6 (2.4) 4.4 (3.2) 0.31 0.69 0.39
Hyperactivity/impulsivity 4.3 (3.2) 3.7 (2.9) 2.7 (2.8) 0.18 0.53 0.35
VABS socialisation 57.2 (15.43) 66.6 (17.7) 71.1 (15.9) − 0.57 − 0.84 − 0.28
VABS daily living 61.6 (12.56) 70.1 (17.1) 73.8 (16.9) − 0.51 − 0.72 − 0.22
VABS communication 68.8 (14.72) 75.3 (19.5) 75.3 (16.8) − 0.38 − 0.38 0.00
VABS ABC 60.1 (12.62) 68.2 (16.1) 71.4 (14.7) − 0.54 − 0.75 − 0.21
  1. Effect size estimates = subgroup mean difference/overall SD, ES 0.2–0.3 = small, ES 0.5 = medium, ES > 0.8 = large, RRB Restricted and repetitive behaviours, VABS Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales-II, ABC Adaptive Behaviour Composite