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Table 6 Comparison of results between the main (RRBI’s from the ADI-R C domain) and additional analyses: SRS-2 Autism Mannerisms (AM); ADI-R C + ADI-R reciprocal social interaction (A); and SRS-2 AM + SRS – social cognition (SC)). Significant B-estimates and q values are displayed in bold (q < 0.05) and estimates with a value of q < 0.1 are displayed as regular text. Results are FDR-corrected

From: Sex differences in brain structure: a twin study on restricted and repetitive behaviors in twin pairs with and without autism

Group (n)Regions associated with RRBI’s on the ADI-R C domain & SRS-2 AM, and when correcting for social cognition symptoms
Males
ADI-R C (88)
Nothing
Males
ADIR-C + A
Bilateral cerebellum C.
Decreased volume
(Right: B = − 1092.29, q = 0.014; Left: B =  1198.49, q = 0.070)
R. Inferior frontal G.
Increased volume
(B = 81.99, q = 0.093)
     
Males
SRS-2 AM
R. Pallidum
Increased volume
(B = 5.99, q = 0.005)
R. Postcentral S.
Reduced volume
(B =  48.93, q = 0.059)
Reduced area
(B =  21.74, q = 0.060)
     
Males
SRS-2 AM + SC
R. Precentral G.
Reduced area
(B =  27.92, q = 0.002)
R. Central G.
Reduced area
(B =  32.08, q = 0.032)
     
Females
ADI-R C (62)
R. Intraparietal S.
Increased thickness
(B = 0.037, q = 0.012)
Reduced area
(B =  120.61, q = 0.072)
R. Orbital G.
Increased thickness
(B = 0.05, q = 0.056)
R. Inferior Frontal Orbital G.
Increased thickness
(B = 0.07, q = 0.065)
L. Superior Frontal G.
Reduced area
(B =  130.44, q = 0.072)
R. Middle Frontal G.
Increased area
(B = 95.29, q = 0.072)
  
Females
ADIR-C + A
R. Intraparietal S.
Increased thickness
(B = 0.041, q = 0.008)
Reduced area
(B =  115.97, q = 0.075)
R. Orbital G.
Increased volume
(B = 161.09, q = 0.007)
R. Inferior Frontal Orbital G.
Increased thickness
(B = 0.075, q = 0.055)
R. Postcentral G.
Increased volume
(B = 154.48, q = 0.003)
R. Postcentral S.
Increased thickness (B = 0.026, q = 0.031)
  
Females
SRS-2 AM (62)
L. Intraparietal S.
Increased thickness
(B = 0.006, q = 0.049)
R. Orbital G.
Increased thickness
(B = 0.013, q = 0.008)
L. Lateral Orbital S.
Increased thickness
(B = 0.017, q = 0.007)
R. Supramarginal G.
Increased area
(B = 18.69, q = 0.007)
   
Females
SRS-2 AM + SC
L. Angular G.
Increased thickness
(B = 0.023, q = 0.018)
Bi. Angular G.
Reduced area
(Left: B =  33.04, q = 0.054; right: B =  31.05, q = 0.051)
L. Lateral orbital S.
Reduced area
(B = − 8.13, q = 0.003)
Bi. Middle frontal S.
Reduced thickness
(Left: B =  0.009, q = 0.071; right: B =  0.011, q = 0.067)
R. Supramarginal G.
Increased area
(B = 33.04, q = 0.063)
R. Superior parietal G.
Increased area
(B = 26.44, q = 0.066)
R. Superior frontal G.
Reduced thickness
(B =  0.009, q = 0.055)
R. Postcentral G.
Reduced thickness
(B =  0.017, q = 0.056)
  1. L left, R right, Bi bilateral, G gyrus, S sulcus, C cortex