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Fig. 5 | Molecular Autism

Fig. 5

From: Persistence of dysfunctional natural killer cells in adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: stigma/consequence of unresolved early infectious events?

Fig. 5

Polyfunctional activity of NK cells from hf-ASD patients. a Polyfunctionality of CD3CD56+ NK cells (degranulation and production of IFN-γ and/or TNF-α), 20 patients with hf-ASD (median), compared to 15 age- and sex-matched healthy controls from the French National Blood Service (EFS-Ctl, median) at entry. Assays were performed in cells: untreated (UT), IL-12 + IL-18 overnight stimulation, or in the presence of K562 target cells. The values were analyzed with a Boolean gate algorithm (FlowJo; Tree Star, Ashland, OR, USA). Pie and arc charts were generated using SPICE software (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases freeware). Pies represent the frequency of NK cells positive for 0, 1, 2, or 3 responses (to CD107a, IFN-γ, and TNF-α). Arcs depict cellular functions as functional or polyfunctional. b Intracellular of production of IFN-γ among UT or IL-12 + IL-18 overnight stimulation, and degranulation of NK cells measured by cell-surface expression of CD107a in CD3CD56+ NK cells from 22 hf-ASD patients and 15 EFS-Ctl, tested in absence (UT) or in the presence of the standard K562 target cells (ratio 1:1), ***p < 0.0001 (Mann-Whitney test)

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