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Table 1 Group descriptive statistics for children with ASD as a function of the frequency and severity of their mothers’ nausea and vomiting during pregnancy

From: Symptom severity in autism spectrum disorder is related to the frequency and severity of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy: a retrospective case-control study

  No nausea and vomiting during pregnancy
(n = 58)
Occasional nausea but no vomiting
(n = 71)
Daily nausea but no vomiting
(n = 58)
Occasional vomiting with or without nausea
(n = 41)
Daily nausea and vomiting
(n = 59)
Child sex (%, n)a
 Male 20.7 (47) 28.6 (65) 18.9 (43) 14.1 (32) 17.6 (40)
 Female 18.3 (11) 10.0 (6) 25.0 (15) 15.0 (9) 31.7 (19)
Maternal preeclampsia during pregnancy (%, n)
 No 20.9 (55) 24.0 (63) 20.5 (54) 13.3 (36) 21.3 (56)
 Yes 12.5 (3) 33.3 (8) 16.7 (4) 25.0 (3) 12.5 (3)
Fetal growth restriction (%, n)
 No 19.5 (43) 24.4 (54) 19.9 (44) 15.8 (35) 20.4 (45)
 Yes 15.8 (6) 26.3 (10) 18.4 (7) 13.2 (5) 26.3 (10)
Child required breathing assistance after birth (%, n)
 Not required 20.2 (50) 25.9 (64) 21.1 (52) 13.4 (33) 19.4 (48)
 Required 21.1 (8) 18.4 (7) 15.8 (6) 18.4 (7) 26.3 (10)
Child required special nursery care after birth (%, n)
 Not required 21.2 (47) 23.0 (51) 19.4 (43) 15.8 (35) 20.7 (46)
 Required 17.7 (11) 30.6 (19) 24.2 (15) 8.1 (5) 19.4 (12)
Child’s gestational age at birth (weeks)
 Mean (SD, n) 38.75 (2.42, 55) 38.61 (2.56, 70) 38.25 (2.86, 56) 38.71 (2.16, 41) 39.02 (1.75, 57)
Maternal age at conception (years)b
 Mean (SD, n) 31.74 (5.61, 58) 32.25 (5.11, 71) 31.73 (4.99, 58) 29.80 (5.45, 41) 30.46 (4.91, 58)
Paternal age at conception (years)
 Mean (SD, n) 34.12 (5.29, 57) 35.26 (6.23, 70) 33.33 (6.17, 58) 31.33 (6.10, 41) 33.34 (6.34, 58)
Child age at time of ASD diagnosis (years)
 Mean (SD, n) 4.26 (2.88, 58) 4.69 (2.74, 65) 4.25 (2.84, 57) 5.05 (3.01, 38) 5.42 (3.67, 57)
Child age at time of data collection (years)
 Mean (SD, n) 7.94 (3.31, 58) 7.67 (3.76, 71) 8.52 (3.63, 58) 9.11 (4.35, 41) 8.54 (4.41, 59)
  1. aChi-square analysis, p < .05
  2. bOne-way ANOVA, p < .05