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Table 3 Relevant literature on example miRNAs with sexual dimorphism in ASD relative

From: Possible sexually dimorphic role of miRNA and other sncRNA in ASD brain

miRNA Relevant findings
miR-151 (female STS) Regulated in serum of children with autism [30]
miR-181 (female STS vs PAC) Regulated in serum of children with ASD [30]; expressed in brain, promotes synaptogenesis and decreases axon growth [31, 32]; associated with ASD phenotypes [33] and schizophrenia [34]; associated with inflammatory responses of astrocytes [35]; influences apoptosis and mitochondrial function in astrocytes [36]; targets GABA receptors [37].
miR-219 (female STS) Regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation and likely myelin production [38]; regulates neural progenitors by dampening apical Par protein-dependent Hedgehog signaling [57]; polymorphisms in miR-219 affect genes involved in NMDAR signaling and schizophrenia [58]. Young age and environmental enrichment increase serum exosomes containing miR-219 that promote CNS myelination [59]; human endometrial-derived stromal stem cells (EnSCs) can be programmed into pre-oligodendrocyte cells by overexpression of miR-219 or miR-338 [60, 61].
miR-338 (female STS) Regulates oligodendrocyte differentiation and likely myelin production [38]; attenuates cortical neuronal outgrowth by modulating expression of axon guidance genes and axonal mitochondrial genes [3941]
miR-488 (female PAC) Associated with panic disorder and regulate several anxiety candidate genes and related pathways [62]
miR-125 (female STS) Differentially expressed in male vs female frontal lobe regions during normal neurodevelopment [14]; neuronal differentiation, and specifically promotes the generation of neurons of dopaminergic fate and possibly other types of neurons [63]