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Table 3 Percent endorsed ADOS item abnormality (non-zero scores) by diagnosis

From: Parent-reported and clinician-observed autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): implications for practice under DSM-5

  ADHD ASD
  (n = 48) (n = 164)
A1. Social-emotional reciprocity
 Quality of social overtures (item B7/B9)*** 27 70
 Shared enjoyment in interaction (item B4) 17 38
 Quality of social response (item B9/B11)** 56 80
 Conversation (item A8)*** 50 80
 Offers information (item A5)** 13 41
 Asks for information (item A6) 77 86
Amount of reciprocal social communication (item B10/B12)*** 25 68
A2. Non-verbal communicative behaviors
Unusual eye contact (item B1)*** 31 71
Facial expressions directed to examiner (item B2)*** 13 67
 Descriptive, conventional, instrumental, or informational gestures (item A9) 29 46
B1. Stereotyped/repetitive speech, motor movements, or use of objects
 Immediate echolalia (item A3) 2 15
 Stereotyped/idiosyncratic use of words/phrases (item A4)*** 31 71
 Hand and finger and other complex mannerisms (item D2)** 2 30
B2. Excessive adherence to routines, ritualized patterns, or resistance to change
 Compulsions or rituals (item D5) 21 27
B3. Highly restricted, fixated interests
 Excessive Interest in or References to Unusual or Highly Specific Topics or Objects or Repetitive Behaviors (item D4)*** 15 55
B4. Hyper-/hypo-reactivity to sensory input or unusual interest in sensory environment
 Unusual sensory interest in play material/person (item D1)** 10 34
  1. Based on Huerta, Bishop, Duncan, Hus, and Lord, 2012 item classification for DSM-5; items in italics are those that met criteria for adequacy at distinguishing between groups (endorsed in >66 % of ASD and <33 % of ADHD)
  2. **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001