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Table 2 Logistic regression analyses children’s 2D:4D ratios stratified by gender: comparison of children scoring high and low on emotion recognition (DANVA)

From: Social communication and emotion difficulties and second to fourth digit ratio in a large community-based sample

  Minimally adjusted model OR (95 % CI)a Fully adjusted model OR (95 % CI)b
  2D:4D right 2D:4D left 2D:4D right 2D:4D left
Female   
 Happy faces (≥1 error) 1.01 (0.98, 1.05) 1.00 (0.96, 1.03) 1.01 (0.98, 1.05) 1.00 (0.96, 1.03)
 Sad faces (≥2 errors) 0.99 (0.95, 1.02) 1.03 (0.98, 1.07) 0.99 (0.95, 1.02) 1.03 (0.99, 1.07)
 Angry faces (≥4 errors) 1.00 (0.96, 1.05) 1.00 (0.96, 1.05) 1.00 (0.96,01.04) 1.01 (0.96, 1.05)
 Fearful faces (≥3 errors) 0.98 (0.94, 1.01) 0.97 (0.94, 1.01) 0.98 (0.94, 1.01) 0.97 (0.94, 1.01)
 All low intensity faces (≥5 errors) 1.01 (0.98, 1.05) 1.01 (0.97, 1.04) 1.01 (0.98, 1.05) 1.01 (0.97, 1.05)
 All high intensity faces (≥3 errors) 1.00 (0.97, 1.04) 0.99 (0.95, 1.03) 1.00 (0.96, 1.04) 0.99 (0.95, 1.03)
 Misattributed as Happy (≥4) 0.96 (0.92, 1.01) 0.99 (0.94, 1.03) 0.96 (0.92, 1.01) 1.00 (0.95, 1.03)
 Misattributed as sad (≥3) 1.01 (0.96, 1.05) 0.97 (0.93, 1.02) 1.01 (0.96, 1.05) 0.97 (0.93, 1.02)
 Misattributed as Angry (≥2) 1.01 (0.96, 1.06) 1.02 (0.97, 1.06) 1.01 (0.96, 1.05) 1.02 (0.97, 1.06)
 Misattributed as fearful (≥2) 1.00 (0.97, 1.04) 0.99 (0.96, 1.03) 1.00 (0.96, 1.04) 0.99 (0.96, 1.03)
Male     
 Happy faces (≥1 error) 1.01 (0.97, 1.04) 0.99 (0.97, 1.00) 1.01 (0.99, 1.02) 0.99 (0.97, 1.00)
 Sad faces (≥2 errors) 1.02 (0.98, 1.06) 1.02 (0.99, 1.04) 1.02 (0.99, 1.04) 1.02 (0.99, 1.04)
 Angry faces (≥4 errors) 1.02 (0.99, 1.06) 1.03 (0.99, 1.07) 1.03 (0.99, 1.07) 1.03 (0.99, 1.07)
 Fearful faces (≥3 errors) 1.02 (0.99, 1.07) 1.02 (0.99, 1.04) 1.02 (0.99, 1.05) 1.02 (0.99, 1.04)
 All low intensity faces (≥5 errors) 1.05 (1.01, 1.09)ns 1.02 (0.99, 1.06) 1.05 (1.01, 1.09)ns 1.02 (0.99, 1.06)
 All high intensity faces (≥3 errors) 1.01 (0.97, 1.05) 1.00 (0.97, 1.03) 1.01 (0.99, 1.03) 1.00 (0.97, 1.03)
 Misattributed as Happy (≥4) 1.01 (0.97, 1.06) 1.01 (0.70, 1.05) 1.01 (0.97, 1.06) 1.01 (0.70, 1.05)
 Misattributed as sad (≥ three) 1.01 (0.97, 1.05) 1.00 (0.97, 1.04) 1.01 (0.99, 1.03) 1.00 (0.97, 1.04)
 Misattributed as angry (≥2) 1.02 (0.97, 1.07) 1.00 (0.98, 1.02) 1.02 (0.97, 1.07) 1.00 (0.98, 1.02)
 Misattributed as fearful (≥2) 1.00 (0.97, 1.04) 1.00 (0.98, 1.01) 1.00 (0.97, 1.04) 1.00 (0.98, 1.01)
  1. Higher scores in DANVA means more mistakes are made when identifying emotions/more misattributions
  2. ns not significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni-Holm method
  3. aMinimally adjusted model: adjusted for child age and tester
  4. bFully adjusted model: adjusted for child age, tester, maternal education, ethnic background and parity; higher scores on SCDC represent more social communication problems