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Table 2 Autism symptom levels in non-ASD, non-ASD with HLDAS, and ASD-affected children by family incidence type

From: Quantitative autism symptom patterns recapitulate differential mechanisms of genetic transmission in single and multiple incidence families

  Non-ASD siblings Non-ASD siblings with HLDAS ASD siblings Family incidence type by diagnostic group
Single incidence families Multiple incidence families Single incidence families Multiple incidence families Single incidence families Multiple incidence families Χ 2 (p)
M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) M (SD) M (SD)  
SRS
 Total raw score 19.7 (19.4) 27.9 (27.3) 41.4 (31.4) 45.5 (25.6) 105.6 (29.0) 101.0 (33.1) 17.28 (<.001)
 Emotion recognition .41 (.37) .56 (.52) .83 (.56) .87 (.44) 1.85 (.48) 1.79 (.55) 14.45 (.001)
 Social avoidance .19 (.31) .27 (.42) .35 (.45) .45 (.51) 1.16 (.62) 1.08 (.65) 9.28 (.010)
 Interpersonal relationships .23 (.39) .38 (.55) .57 (.67) .72 (.71) 1.69 (.66) 1.59 (.71) 11.26 (.004)
 Repetitive sensory motor .19 (.26) .25 (.31) .45 (.45) .48 (.36) 1.35 (.60) 1.26 (.65) 18.11 (<.001)
 Insistence on sameness .29 (.33) .42 (.46) .60 (.52) .66 (.45) 1.63 (.51) 1.56 (.55) 16.75 (<.001)
DSM-5 SCI
 A1: socio-emotional reciprocity .08 (.12) .12 (.14) .19 (.20) .19 (.16) .61 (.21) .59 (.24) 14.20 (.001)
 A2: non-verbal communication .15 (.14) .16 (.15) .27 (.19) .29 (.16) .64 (.19) .61 (.21) 5.97 (.051)
 A3: relationships .07 (.14) .11 (.18) .20 (.24) .23 (.23) .68 (.24) .63 (.27) 11.80 (.003)
DSM-5 RRB
 B1: repetitive motor .03 (.10) .05 (.13) .09 (.18) .08 (.18) .60 (.30) .53 (.32) 21.74 (<.001)
 B2: resistance to change .13 (.17) .19 (.24) .26 (.23) .30 (.22) .65 (.24) .64 (.24) 9.43 (.009)
 B3: restricted interests .06 (.14) .11 (.16) .17 (.22) .17 (.19) .66 (.25) .62 (.27) 18.96 (<.001)
 B4: abnormal sensory .05 (.11) .08 (.13) .15 (.21) .12 (.16) .53 (.25) .49 (.27) 17.96 (<.001)
  1. Higher raw and T scores indicate higher levels of autism traits. Factor analytically derived SRS sub-scales are presented as raw item averages (range 0–3; 0 = not true, 1 = sometimes true, 2 = often true, 3 = almost always true). T scores are not currently available for these sub-scales. Each DSM-5 symptom score represents the proportion of endorsed items mapped to that symptom. Scale endpoints represent: 0 = no items endorsed by any individual and 1 = all items endorsed across all individuals