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Table 1 Articles selected for review

From: Measuring autistic traits in the general population: a systematic review of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in a nonclinical population sample of 6,900 typical adult males and females

  Nonclinical sample Autism spectrum cases
  Males Females Overall Range N (Females) Males Females Overall Range N (Females)
AQ m (SD) AQ m (SD) AQ m (SD) a AQ m (SD) AQ m (SD) AQ m (SD) a
[5] 17.8 (6.8) 15.4 (5.7) 16.4 (6.3)   174 (98) 35.1 (6.9) 38.1 (4.4) 35.8 (6.5)   58 (13)
[22]    15.9 (7.4)   16 (2)    37.5 (9.9)   16 (2)
[23]    15 (6) 6 to 30 20 (2)    38 (5) 28 to 46 21 (2)
[24]    14 (5.4) 6 to 26 22 (4)    38.5 (7.8) 16 to 49 22 (5)
[25]    16.65 (6.81)   24 (12)    34.63 (7.08)   16 (6)
[26]    16.5 (6.38)   30 (7)    33.93 (7.89)   30 (7)
[27]    14.9 (8.58)   21 (5)    37.1 (6.21)   21 (5)
[28]    11.6 (5)   12 (6)    36.7 (6)   12 (6)
[29]    12.53 (5.78)   18 (8)    35.28 (5.78)   18 (8)
[30]    14.64 (7.46)   28 (14)    34.93 (6.9)   28 (14)
[31]    17.33 (8.79) 2 to 42 22 (4)    35.86 (8.23) 17 to 48 21 (4)
[32] 18.81 (7.8) 17.21 (6.22)    35 (19)      
[33]    15.3 (6.1)   12 (NA)    30.6 (9.7)   12 (NA)
[34]    14.86 (4.03)   24 (12)      
[35]    13.13 (5.46) 6 to 29 23 (6)    34.39 (7.65) 21 to 46 23 (7)
[17] 17.7 (6.9) 13.1 (6.3)    988 (644)      
[36]    14.12 (5.78)   127 (84)      
[37]    15.8 (7.2)   19 (NA)    36.1 (8.7)   18 (NA)
[38] 19 (6.25) 12.15 (4.16) 15.13 (6.12)   23 (13)      
[39]    14 (4.74)   17 (10)      
[40]    15.8 (6.35)   19 (13)      
[41]    16 (7) 2 to 33 91 (53)      
[42]    19.64 (7.84)   15 (4)    37.06 (8.47)   16 (4)
[43]    16.72 (7.44)   18 (5)      
[44] 19 (7.87) 17.36 (7.99)   2 to 45 838 (509) 37.8 (7.8) 39.8 (6.0)   8 to 50 449 (209)
[45]    15.4 (5.9)   19 (3)    27.6 (5.7)   14 (2)
[46]    13.7 (7.43)   32 (16)    36.9 (7.05)   29 (14)
[47]    13.7 (7.7)   30 (15)    36.8 (7.1)   28 (13)
[48] 11.7 (5.4) 10.4 (4.2)    53 (25) 28 (9.4) 31.9 (7.9)    50 (24)
[49]    15 (5.63)   13 (7)    31.82 (9.59)   14 (4)
[50]    13.67 (2.76)   18 (6)    34.39 (5.26)   18 (6)
[51]    14.05 (6.19) 3 to 29 38 (4)      
[52]    14.61 (0.84)   35 (22)      
[53]    13.8 (5.9)   16 (3)      
[54]    14.1 (5.7)   96 (96)      
[55]    16.5 (1)   32 (16)      
[56]    14.55 (5.44)   29 (8)      
[57]    19.1 (7.03)   706 (445)      
    18.6 (6.04)   452 (229)      
[58]    16.8 (7.6) 7 to 33 16 (12)      
[59]    11.9 (4.5) 3 to 21 32 (3)    29.4 (7) 16 to 44 32 (2)
[60]    15.1 (5.8) 5 to 28 47 (18)    35.8 (5.9) 22 to 46 38 (38)
[61]    14.05 (5.8)   129 (83)    36.04 (7.13)   104 (46)
[62]    16.4 (6.11)   15 (9)    29.44 (8.6)   13 (4)
[63]    17.88 (8.21)   16 (4)    33.13 (10.09)   16 (1)
[64]    13.72 (5.67)   18 (5)    34.67 (6.89)   18 (5)
[65]    19 (7.1)   600 (383)  
[66]    13.6 (7.86) 4 to 37 25 (25)    36.6 (6.53) 22 to 49 25 (4)
[67]    16.69 (5.69) 7 to 31 36 (18)      
[68]    14.86 (6.22) 3 to 37 216 (NA)      
[69]    16.3 (7.7)   342 (79)    35.32 (7.69)   223 (155)
[70] 15.6 (6.9) 12 (4.8)    60 (30) 32.7 (7.3) 37.5 (6.7)    60 (30)
[71]    12.11 (5.03)   28 (7)    34.15 (8.61)   27 (6)
[72]    16 (5.1) 5 to 28 67 (52)      
[73]    13 (5)   18 (6)    34 (10)   18 (9)
[74]    18.1 (7.5)   228 (149)    36 (7.6)   209 (122)
[75]    15.6 (6)   18 (12)      
[76]    14.6 (5)   18 (2)    30.4 (4.6)   16 (3)
[77]    13.09 (5.79)   22 (13)      
[78]    20 (9.7)   119 (60)    36.4 (7.3)   70 (30)
[79]    13.03 (5.85) 2 to 26 31 (17)      
[80]    17 (7) 5 to 33 15 (10)      
[81]    17.41 (6.89)   163 (91)      
[82]    13.2 (6.1)   31 (3)    29.5 (7.5)   39 (3)
[83] 18.26 (4.49) 16.95 (4.67) 17.61 (4.57)   38 (19)      
[84]    12.52 (5.41)   29 (7)    34.44 (8.78)   27 (6)
[85]    12.26 (5.45) 3 to 21 19 (4)    35.16 (7.59) 21 to 45 19 (4)
[86]    13.8 (5.7)   17 (6)    37.3 (9.9)   14 (7)
[87]    19.57 (7.48)   134 (NA)      
[88]    15.65 (1.59)   20 (10)      
    16.5 (1.26)   20 (10)      
    18.45 (1.48)   20 (10)      
    15.15 (0.83)   26 (13)      
    15.85 (1.26)   26 (13)      
[89] 11.43 (4.2) 14.2 (4.5) 12.58 (4.36) 7 to 20 12 (5) 40.13 (6.77) 42.5 (4.42) 41.14 (5.8)   14 (6)
[90] 15 (6) 14 (5)    29 (16) 38 (13) 39 (13)    30 (16)
[91]    17.2 (5.2)   12 (4)      
[92]    15.24 (6.37)   17 (3)    35.59 (9.17)   17 (3)
  1. Studies ordered chronologically; blank cells indicate data not reported (or for patients, AQ not administered to individuals with an autism spectrum condition). Overall AQ meana refers to combined male and female score.