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Table 1 Frequencies of reproductive and sex-linked symptoms and conditions among women with autism spectrum conditions and controls

From: Uncovering steroidopathy in women with autism: a latent class analysis

Condition or symptom Women with ASC (n = 415) Controls (n = 415) Unadjusted odds ratio (95% CI) P value (Fisher's exact test, one-sided)
(sample size, if different from above) (sample size, if different from above)
n (%) n (%)
Sex-linked conditions
Anorexia 33 (8.0%) 10 (2.4%) 3.50 (1.70-7.20) 0.000
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia 1 (0.2%) 0 (0.0%) - 0.500
Diabetes 10 (2.4%) 14 (3.4%) 0.71 (0.31-1.61) 0.268
Epilepsy 17 (4.1%) 6 (1.4%) 2.91 (1.14-7.46) 0.016
Any hormonal medical condition 43 (10.4%) 35 (8.4%) 1.23 (0.79-2.01) 0.203
Cardiac condition 16 (3.9%) 5 (1.2%) 3.29 (1.19-9.06) 0.012
Thyroid condition 35 (8.4%) 35 (8.4%) 1.00 (0.61-1.63) 0.550
Penicillin allergy 38 (9.2%) 37 (8.9%) 1.03 (0.64-1.66) 0.500
Reproductive or sex steroid-related symptoms or conditions
Hirsutism 76 (18.3%) 61 (14.7%) 1.30 (0.90-1.88) 0.089
Irregular menstrual cycle 192 (46.3%) 141 (34.0%) 1.673 (1.26-2.21) 0.0002
Unusually painful periods 163 (39.3%) 109 (26.3%) 1.82 (1.35-2.44) 0.00004
Polycystic ovary syndrome     
Contraceptive pill users 33 (11.8%) 47 (14.4%) 0.80 (0.50-1.29) 0.212
  279 327   
Contraceptive pill non-users 11 (10.2%) 4 (4.7%) 2.296 (0.70-7.49) 0.126
  108 85   
Pre-menstrual syndrome     
Contraceptive pill users 67 (24.0%) 45 (13.8%) 1.98 (1.30-3.01) 0.001
  279 327   
Contraceptive pill non-users 12 (11.1%) 7 (8.2%) 1.39 (0.52-3.71) 0.339
  108 85   
Excessive menstrual bleeding     
Contraceptive pill users 94 (33.7%) 84 (25.7%) 1.47 (1.04-2.09) 0.019
  279 327   
Non-contraceptive pill users 22 (20.4%) 14 (16.5%) 1.30 (0.62-2.72) 0.308
  108 85   
Severe acne     
Contraceptive pill users 49 (17.6%) 41 (12.5%) 1.49 (0.95-2.33) 0.053
  279 327   
Non-contraceptive pill users 23 (21.3%) 5 (5.9%) 4.33 (1.57-11.94) 0.002
  108 85   
Timing of puberty
Delayed puberty 4 (1.0%) 2 (0.5%) 2.01 (0.37-11.03) 0.343
Precocious puberty 13 (3.1%) 2 (0.5%) 6.68 (1.50-29.78) 0.003
Early growth spurt 84 (20.2%) 53 (12.8%) 1.73 (1.19-2.521) 0.002
Periods after 16 years 28 (6.7%) 19 (4.6%) 1.51 (0.83-2.75) 0.115
Periods before 10 years 34 (8.2%) 23 (5.5%) 1.52 (0.88-2.63) 0.085
Reproductive cancers
Breast cancer 17 (4.1%) 15 (3.6%) 1.14 (0.56-2.31) 0.429
Family history of breast cancer 97 (23.4%) 106 (25.5%) 0.89 (0.65-1.22) 0.259
Ovarian cancer 9 (2.2%) 12 (2.9%) 0.74 (0.31-1.79) 0.330
Family history of ovarian cancer 49 (11.8%) 41 (9.9%) 1.22 (0.79-1.90) 0.217
Family history prostate cancer 39 (9.4%) 44 (10.6%) 0.88 (0.56-1.34) 0.322
Uterine cancer 17 (4.1%) 12 (2.9%) 1.43 (0.68-3.04) 0.225
Family history uterine cancer 43 (10.4%) 34 (8.2%) 1.30 (0.81-2.08) 0.169
Gender and sexuality     
Tomboyism 371 404   
  252 (67.9%) 171 (42.3%) 2.885 0.0000
Gender dysphoria 320 396   
  12 (3.8%) 1 (0.3%) 15.39 0.0004
Sexual preference     
  414 415   0.000*
Male 261 (63.0%) 369 (88.9%)   
Female 48 (11.6%) 28 (6.7%)   
Both 57 (13.8%) 18 (4.3%)   
Neither 48 (11.6%) 0 (0.0%)   
Transsexual 102 52   
  12 (11.8%) 1 (1.9%) 6.80 (0.86-53.82) 0.030
Obstetric conditions ASC (parous) Controls (parous)   
  185 264   
Miscarriage 56 (30.3%) 65 (24.6%) 1.33 (0.87-2.02) 0.111
Pre-eclampsia 12 (6.5%) 17 (6.4%) 1.01 (0.47-2.16) 0.565
Difficulty conceiving 25 (13.5%) 51 (19.3%) 0.65 (0.39-1.10) 0.068
  1. *A chi-squared statistic was calculated instead of using Fisher’s exact test. P values shown in bold are significant (P < 0.05). ASC, autism spectrum conditions.