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Table 2 Autistic impairments and neurobehavioral characteristics

From: Presence of autism, hyperserotonemia, and severe expressive language impairment in Williams-Beuren syndrome

Characteristics Patient 1 Patient 2
Autistic behavioral domains and autism diagnosisa   
ADI–R   
 Abnormalities of development evident at or before age 36 months (cutoff = 1) 5 4
 Nonverbal communication (cutoff = 7) 14 12
 Reciprocal social interaction (cutoff = 10) 26 23
 Repetitive behaviors and stereotyped patterns (cutoff = 3) 9 9
ADOS (module 1)   
 Communication (cutoff = 4) 5 5
 Reciprocal social interaction (cutoff = 7) 13 8
 Communication + social interaction total (cutoff = 12) 18 13
 Play 3 1
 Repetitive behaviors and stereotyped patterns 5 4
Expressive behaviors   
 Verbal language None (total absence of words) None (total absence of words)
 Self-injurious behaviors Ear-slapping, hand-biting Self-scratching until bleeding, elbow-banging
  1. aAccording to the ADI–R (parental interview) or the ADOS (direct observation of the patient) algorithm, the DSM-IV-TR and the ICD-10 diagnostic criteria for autistic disorder are fulfilled when the total scores of each domain reach the cutoff point.