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Table 9 Comparison of individual item and total scores on the SBQ-R and SBQ-ASC between the autistic, possibly autistic and non-autistic groups

From: Development and validation of the suicidal behaviours questionnaire - autism spectrum conditions in a community sample of autistic, possibly autistic and non-autistic adults

   Autistic Possibly autistic Combined autistic/possibly autistic Non-autistic Comparisons (autistic vs. possibly autistic vs. non-autistic)
N = 308 N = 113 N = 421 N = 268  
N (%)/Mean (SD)
SBQ-R mean item scores Lifetime suicidality 3.04 (.893) 2.66 (.935) 2.94 (.92) 2.11 (.965) H(2) = 119.05, p < .001
  Frequency of suicidal thoughts in the past year 3.13 (1.59)n 2.78 (1.5)n 3.03 (1.57) 1.83 (1.21) H(2) = 101.35, p < .001
  Suicide threat 1.78 (.865) 1.52 (.75) 1.71 (.841) 1.28 (.57) H(2) = 52.9, p < .001
  Likelihood of future suicide attempt 2.85 (1.8) 2.08 (1.71) 2.65 (1.81) 1.06 (1.25) H(3) = 146.65, p < .001
  Total SBQ-R score 10.81 (4.05) 9.04 (3.9) 10.33 (4.08) 6.28 (3.08) -
   > Psychiatric cut-off 230 (76.7) 48 (57.1) 294 (71.4) 183 (30.9) X2(2) = 119.27 p < .001, φ = .42
SBQ-ASC visual aids Yes 117 (38) 35 (31) 152 (36.1) 59 (22) X2(2) = 17.21 p < .001, φ = .16
SBQ-ASC item 1: lifetime suicidality Non-suicidal 19 (6.17) 10 (8.85) 29 (6.89) 81 (30.22)  
  Suicidal ideation—"brief passing thought" 45 (14.61) 40 (35.4) 85 (20.19) 82 (30.6)  
  Suicidal ideation—"seriously thought about" 41 (13.31) 13 (11.5) 54 (12.83) 40 (14.93)  
  Suicide plan 90 (29.22) 24 (21.24) 114 (27.08) 42 (15.67)  
  Suicide attempt 113 (36.69) 26 (23.01) 139 (33.02) 23 (8.58)  
  Mean item score 2.76 (1.26) 2.14 (1.35) 2.59 (1.31) 1.42 (1.3) H(2) = 125.98, p < .001
Lifetime suicide attempt subgroup follow-up questions: I had a plan that I carried out 66 (58.41) 12 (46.15) 78 (56.12) 10 (43.48) X2(2) = 2.74, p = .254, φ = .131
  I had no plan 19 (16.81) 1 (3.85) 20 (14.39) 3 (13.04) X2(2) = 3, p = .223, φ = .136
  I suddenly felt the urge to attempt to end my life (impulsivity) 44 (38.94) 12 (46.15) 56 (40.29) 12 (52.17) X2(2) = 1.49, p = .474, φ = .096
  I happened to have access to the means to end my life 31 (27.43) 9 (34.62) 40 (28.78) 5 (21.74) X2(2) = 1.02, p = .6, φ = .08
SBQ-ASC item 2: frequency of suicidal thoughts in last 12 months Never 90 (29.22) 39 (34.51) 129 (30.64) 173 (64.55)  
  Less than once a month 81 (26.3) 36 (31.86) 117 (27.79) 64 (23.88)  
  Once a month 29 (9.42) 16 (14.16) 45 (10.69) 13 (4.85)  
  2–3 times a month 32 (10.39) 8 (7.08) 40 (9.5) 8 (2.99)  
  Once a week 23 (7.47) 4 (3.54) 27 (6.41) 4 (1.49)  
  2–6 times a week 33 (10.71) 9 (7.96) 42 (9.98) 5 (1.87)  
  1 or more times a day 20 (6.49) 1 (0.88) 21 (4.99) 1 (0.37)  
  Mean item score 1.99 (1.96)n 1.41 (1.56)n 1.83 (1.88) .06 (1.09) H(2) = 100.25, p < .001
SBQ-ASC item 3: duration of suicidal thoughts N/A 57 (18.51) 34 (30.09) 91 (21.62) 146 (54.48)  
  Less than 5 min 38 (12.34) 22 (19.47) 60 (14.25) 46 (17.16)  
  Less than 1 h 71 (23.05) 22 (19.47) 93 (22.09) 27 (10.07)  
  1–4 h 73 (23.7) 19 (16.81) 92 (21.85) 30 (11.19)  
  5–8 h 29 (9.42) 7 (6.19) 36 (8.55) 5 (1.87)  
  More than 8 h 40 (12.99) 9 (7.96) 49 (11.64) 14 (5.22)  
  Mean item score 2.32 (1.6) 1.73 (1.58) 2.16 (1.61) 1.04 (1.45) H(2) = 95.7, p < .001
SBQ-ASC item 4: Likelihood of acting on suicidal thoughts N/A 43 (13.96) 28 (24.78) 71 (16.86) 127 (47.39)  
  No chance at all 49 (15.91) 25 (22.12) 74 (17.58) 70 (26.12)  
  Very unlikely 95 (30.84) 42 (37.17) 137 (32.54) 45 (16.79)  
  Rather unlikely 90 (29.22) 17 (15.04) 107 (25.42) 25 (9.33)  
  Rather likely 27 (8.77) 1 (0.88) 28 (6.65) 1 (0.37)  
  Very likely 4 (1.3) 0 (0) 4 (0.95) 0 (0)  
  Mean item score 2.07 (1.21) 1.45 (1.05) 1.9 (1.2) .89 (1.02) H(2) = 128.38, p < .001
SBQ-ASC item 5: communication of suicidality to others Suicidal ideation 186 (60.39) 50 (44.25) 236 (56.06) 82 (30.6)  
  Future suicide attempt 82 (26.62) 19 (16.81) 101 (23.99) 26 (9.7)  
  Past suicide attempt 110 (35.71) 24 (21.24) 134 (31.83) 26 (9.7)  
  Mean item score 2.21 (2.25) 1.42 (1.95) 1.99 (2.2) .79 (1.47) H(2) = 78.68, p < .001
  Overall communication of suicidality 210 (68.2) 57 (50.4) 267 (63.4) 92 (34.3)  
5b: Communicated suicidal intent subgroup: person(s) disclosed to An acquaintance 5 (2.6) 4 (7.4) 9 (3.6) 3 (3.2) -
  A friend 73 (37.2) 19 (35.2) 92 (36.8) 40 (42.6) X2(2) = 1.03, p = .6, φ = .05
  A family member 75 (38.3) 17 (31.5) 92 (36.8) 37 (39.4) X2(2) = 1.02, p = .6, φ = .05
  A health professional (e.g. General Practitioner, family doctor, Psychiatrist, Psychologist) 138 (70.4) 36 (63) 172 (68.8) 56 (62.3) X2(2) = 3.65, p = .16, φ = .1
  Other 25 (12.8) 8 (14.8) 33 (13.2) 15 (16) X2(2) = .582, p = .75, φ = .04
5c: Non-disclosure subgroup: reasons I had no one to tell 22 (16.2) 4 (7.1) 26 (13.5) 6 (9) X2(2) = 3.95, p = .14, φ = .12
  I chose not to 38 (27.9) 19 (33.9) 57 (29.7) 31 (46.3) X2(2) = 6.72, p = .035, φ = .16
  I was worried about the effect on others 55 (40.4) 22 (39.3) 77 (40.1) 28 (41.8) X2(2) = 081, p = .96, φ = .02
  I was worried about the consequences for myself 39 (28.7) 19 (33.9) 58 (30.2) 8 (11.9) X2(2) = 9.3, p = .01, φ = .19
  I wasn't sure how to express my thoughts 39 (28.7) 17 (30.4) 56 (29.2) 7 (10.4) X2(2) = 9.51, p = .009, φ = .19
  I was afraid to 27 (19.9) 8 (14.3) 35 (18.2) 5 (7.5) X2(2) = 5.35, p = .07, φ = .14
  I didn't consider telling anyone 19 (14) 15 (26.8) 34 (17.7) 18 (26.9) X2(2) = 6.65, p = .036, φ = .16
  Other (please specify): 17 (12.5) 7 (12.5) 24 (12.5) 4 (6) X2(2) = 2.2, p = .33, φ = .09
SBQ-ASC item 6 (n = 602) Lifetime NSSI 160 (62.7) 45 (46.4) 205 (58.2) 66 (26.4) X2(2) = 67.46, p < .001, φ = .335
SBQ-ASC Total score 11.34 (6.39) 8.15 (5.85) 10.5 (6.4) 4.75 (5.09) U = 12,308.5, p < .001*
   >  = SBQ-ASC autism cut-off 138 (44.8) 27 (23.9) 165 (39.2) 28 (10.4) X2(2) = 85.02 p < .001, φ = .35
  1. nDenotes non-significant focused comparisons (autistic vs. possibly autistic groups); *Denotes focused comparison between autistic and possibly autistic total SBQ-ASC scores