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Table 2 OACIS-I scores mean unit change from baseline (week 0) at each visit by intervention group, sulforaphane (SF) and placebo (PL), and standardized mean difference of SF compared to PL on OACIS-I scores

From: Randomized controlled trial of sulforaphane and metabolite discovery in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

OACIS-I subscale Paired t testa Effect sizeb
SF group
N
SF group
Mean (SD)
PL group
N
PL group
Mean (SD)
p value Cohen’s d (95% CI)
Total OACIS-I
 Week 7 17 0.29 (0.69) 17 0.18 (0.39) 0.543 0.21 (− 0.46, 0.88)
 Week 15 17 0.29 (0.59) 17 0.24 (0.56) 0.750 0.10 (− 0.52, 0.72)
 Week 22 16 0.50 (0.73) 16 0.50 (0.63) 1.000 0.00 (− 0.69, 0.69)
 Week 30 15 0.50 (0.68) 15 0.73 (0.78) 0.404 − 0.14 (− 0.90, 0.61)
 Week 36 13 0.31 (0.75) 13 0.15 (0.38) 0.502 0.26 (− 0.49, 0.99)
Social interaction severity
 Week 7 17 0.35 (0.70) 17 0.47 (0.62) 0.652 − 0.18 (− 0.93, 0.58)
 Week 15 17 0.41 (0.71) 17 0.47 (0.51) 0.773 − 0.09 (− 0.73, 0.54)
 Week 22 16 0.63 (0.81) 16 1.31 (0.60) 0.007 − 0.97 (− 1.65, − 0.26)
 Week 30 15 1.00 (0.83) 15 1.20 (0.61) 0.384 − 0.28 (− 0.89, 0.34)
 Week 36 13 0.35 (0.63) 13 0.50 (0.54) 0.337 − 0.26 (− 0.78, 0.27)
Aberrant abnormal behaviors
 Week 7 17 0.06 (0.43) 17 0.24 (0.56) 0.422 − 0.35 (− 1.20, 0.50)
 Week 15 17 0.24 (0.44) 17 0.29 (0.69) 0.773 − 0.10 (− 0.78, 0.58)
 Week 22 16 0.63 (0.81) 16 0.50 (0.89) 0.718 0.15 (− 0.64, 0.93)
 Week 30 15 0.67 (0.90) 15 0.57 (0.86) 0.777 0.11 (− 0.66, 0.88)
 Week 36 13 0.15 (0.80) 13 0.08 (0.49) 0.794 0.12 (− 0.74, 0.96)
Repetitive behaviors
 Week 7 17 0.12 (0.33) 17 0.12 (0.33) 1.000 0.00 (− 0.72, 0.72)
 Week 15 17 0.06 (0.43) 17 0.12 (0.49) 0.750 − 0.13 (− 0.90, 0.65)
 Week 22 16 0.50 (0.63) 16 0.56 (0.89) 0.823 − 0.08 (− 0.79, 0.63)
 Week 30 15 0.40 (0.63) 15 0.53 (0.85) 0.658 − 0.18 (− 0.94, 0.60)
 Week 36 13 0.15 (0.55) 13 0.15 (0.55) 1.000 0.00 (− 0.80, 0.80)
Verbal communication
 Week 7 17 0.24 (0.56) 17 0.59 (0.62) 0.138 − 0.60 (− 1.37, 0.19)
 Week 15 17 0.41 (0.71) 17 0.79 (0.77) 0.109 − 0.51 (− 1.13, 0.11)
 Week 22 16 0.63 (0.89) 16 1.28 (0.63) 0.062 − 0.85 (− 1.72, 0.04)
 Week 30 15 0.80 (0.84) 15 1.17 (0.84) 0.228 − 0.44 (− 1.13, 0.27)
 Week 36 13 0.38 (0.65) 13 0.81 (0.75) 0.182 − 0.60 (− 1.46, 0.28)
Nonverbal communication
 Week 7 17 0.18 (0.53) 17 0.29 (0.47) 0.496 − 0.24 (− 0.90, 0.44)
 Week 15 17 0.29 (0.69) 17 0.24 (0.44) 0.750 0.10 (− 0.52, 0.72)
 Week 22 16 0.38 (0.62) 16 0.44 (0.63) 0.806 − 0.10 (− 0.88, 0.69)
 Week 30 15 0.33 (0.62) 15 0.53 (0.64) 0.384 − 0.32 (− 1.02, 0.39)
 Week 36 13 0.15 (0.38) 13 0.08 (0.28) 0.337 0.23 (− 0.24, 0.69)
Hyperactivity inattention
 Week 7 17 0.24 (0.44) 17 0.59 (0.71) 0.138 − 0.60 (− 1.37, 0.19)
 Week 15 17 0.35 (0.49) 17 0.76 (0.83) 0.130 − 0.60 (− 1.36, 0.17)
 Week 22 16 0.69 (0.79) 16 1.00 (0.89) 0.352 − 0.37 (− 1.13, 0.40)
 Week 30 15 0.63 (0.77) 15 0.97 (1.08) 0.420 − 0.36 (− 1.20, 0.50)
 Week 36 13 0.08 (0.64) 13 0.23 (0.44) 0.549 − 0.28 (− 1.17, 0.62)
Anxiety
 Week 7 17 0.24 (0.66) 17 0.12 (0.60) 0.608 0.19 (− 0.52, 0.88)
 Week 15 17 0.18 (0.53) 17 0.24 (0.75) 0.805 − 0.09 (− 0.80, 0.62)
 Week 22 16 0.31 (0.79) 16 0.63 (0.71) 0.352 − 0.41 (− 1.26, 0.45)
 Week 30 15 0.37 (0.67) 15 0.40 (0.83) 0.916 − 0.04 (− 0.85, 0.77)
 Week 36 13 0.23 (0.60) 13 0.04 (0.32) 0.240 0.40 (− 0.26, 1.05)
Sensory sensitivities
 Week 7 17 0.24 (0.56) 17 0.18 (0.39) 0.750 0.12 (− 0.61, 0.85)
 Week 15 17 0.18 (0.39) 17 0.24 (0.44) 0.718 − 0.14 (− 0.89, 0.62)
 Week 22 16 0.38 (0.62) 16 0.44 (0.63) 0.806 − 0.10 (− 0.88, 0.69)
 Week 30 15 0.33 (0.62) 15 0.47 (0.64) 0.634 − 0.21 (− 1.07, 0.65)
 Week 36 13 0.15 (0.55) 13 0.15 (0.38) 1.000 0.00 (− 0.94, 0.94)
Restricted or narrow interests
 Week 7 17 0.06 (0.24) 17 0.06 (0.24) 1.000 0.00 (− 0.69, 0.69)
 Week 15 17 0.12 (0.49) 17 0.24 (0.56) 0.543 − 0.22 (− 0.93, 0.49)
 Week 22 16 0.19 (0.54) 16 0.31 (0.70) 0.608 − 0.20 (− 0.94, 0.55)
 Week 30 15 0.20 (0.56) 15 0.20 (0.56) 1.000 0.00 (− 0.76, 0.76)
 Week 36 13 − 0.07 (0.28) 13 0.07 (0.28) 0.165 − 0.55 (− 1.31, 0.22)
  1. Bold signifies p < 0.05
  2. OACIS-I Ohio Autism Clinical Impressions Scale (or clinical global impression)—improvement
  3. aPaired t test matched for sex and fever response
  4. bStandardized mean difference for matched pairs