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Table 1 Socio-demographic data of participants with or without regression

From: Bayonet-shaped language development in autism with regression: a retrospective study

  Fluent and non-fluent speakers Fluent speakers
ELR-W ELR-P No-ELR p-value ELR No-ELR p-value
n (%) 231 (11%) 109 (5%) 1707 (83%)   136 (12%) 1017 (88%)  
Mean age (year: months) 8:9 9:6 9:0 0.23 10:10 10:1 0.011
Gender (male), % 87% 87% 87% 0.98 90% 88% 0.57
Annual household income, % (n)
 ≤ $ 50_000 21% (45) 20% (20) 15% (250)   14% (18) 15% (148)  
$51,000–$100,000 37% (82) 41% (41) 41% (668)  0.26 44% (56) 43% (417)  0.942
 ≥ $100,000 42% (92) 40% (40) 44% (719)   42% (54) 42% (412)  
Mother’s highest level of education, % (n)
No college 45% (102) 47% (51) 37% (628)   47% (63) 37% (376)  
College 32% (72) 27% (29) 37% (630)  0.033 30% (40) 37% (372)  0.089
Graduate 23% (53) 27% (29) 26% (445)   24% (32) 26% (267)  
Mean intellectual quotient (SD)
NVIQ 79 (24) 78 (28) 89 (23) 3.3e−13 92 (20) 96 (19) 0.038
NVIQ, pairwise comparisonsa 79 89 3.0e−9    
78 89 1.5e−6    
79 78 1    
VIQ 68 (29) 70 (33) 85 (27) 1.3e−21 88 (22) 95 (21) 4.6e−4
VIQ, pairwise comparisonsa 68 85 1.1e−17    
70 85 2.5e−07    
68 70 1    
VIQ/NVIQ 0.84 (0.23) 0.88 (0.23) 0.95 (0.21) 1.4e−13 0.97 (19) 0.99 (18) 0.081
VIQ/NVIQ, pairwise comparisonsa 0.84 0.95 1.9e−12    
0.88 0.95 2.3e−3    
0.84 0.88 0.40    
EPILEPSY (%) 6 (3%) 4 (4%) 28 (2%) 0.21 3 (2%) 13 (1%) 0.36
Association of epilepsy with ELR, (%) 5 (2%) 4 (4%)    2 (1%)   
  1. For socio-demographic data of non-fluent speakers, see Additional file 3: Table S1
  2. ELR: early language regression, No-ELR: no-early language regression, ELR-W: early language regression after first words, ELRP: early language regression after first phrase, IQ: intellectual quotient, NVIQ: non-verbal IQ, VIQ: verbal IQ
  3. aBonferroni-corrected p-value for pairwise comparisons