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Table 2 Exercise, diet, and sleep patterns of autistic adults compared to non-autistic adults

From: An investigation of the diet, exercise, sleep, BMI, and health outcomes of autistic adults

  Unadjusted model Adjusted model†
OR (95% CI) FDR OR (95% CI) FDR Sig
Exercising at least once per week 0.641 (0.536, 0.766) 1.96 × 10–6 0.690 (0.576, 0.826) 1.62 × 10–4 ***
Meeting weekly exercise goals 0.593 (0.491, 0.715) 1.07 × 10–7 0.629 (0.520, 0.760) 6.40 × 10–6 ***
Meeting fruit and vegetable goals (females) 0.550 (0.448, 0.676) 3.35 × 10–8 0.596 (0.441, 0.805) 1.93 × 10–3 **
Meeting fruit and vegetable goals (males) 1.075 (0.808, 1.430) 0.623 1.086 (0.714, 1.652) 1.000  
Eating high calorie foods 1.251 (1.042, 1.502) 0.022 1.240 (1.031, 1.491) 0.030 *
Meeting daily water goals 1.073 (0.884, 1.302) 0.504 1.195 (0.980, 1.457) 0.091  
Drinking high sugar beverages 1.492 (1.103, 2.027) 0.011 1.328 (0.978, 1.802) 0.083  
Drinking caffeinated beverages 0.728 (0.612, 0.865) 4.79 × 10–4 0.764 (0.637, 0.917) 5.90 × 10–3 **
Vegan/vegetarian 1.303 (1.043, 1.631) 0.023 1.401 (1.118, 1.755) 5.36 × 10–3 **
Lactose free 2.152 (1.579, 2.954) 1.48 × 10–6 2.257 (1.655, 3.076) 1.67 × 10–6 ***
Nut free 1.514 (0.837, 2.790) 0.186 1.748 (0.982, 3.112) 0.075  
Gluten free 2.375 (1.702, 3.346) 3.25 × 10–7 2.436 (1.744, 3.402) 1.42 × 10–6 ***
Soy free 1.771 (0.954, 3.382) 0.073 1.768 (0.965, 3.240) 0.081  
No fish 1.772 (1.152, 2.760) 0.011 1.905 (1.246, 2.912) 4.91 × 10–3 **
Other dietary restriction 1.663 (1.338, 2.071) 7.68 × 10–6 1.758 (1.410, 2.193) 2.97 × 10–6 ***
No dietary restriction 0.740 (0.627, 0.872) 5.32 × 10–4 0.690 (0.584, 0.817) 5.31 × 10–5 ***
Dietary restriction due to allergy 1.856 (1.419, 2.435) 7.99 × 10–6 1.953 (1.491, 2.558) 5.58 × 10–6 ***
Sleeping 6+ hours (females) 0.617 (0.489, 0.777) 6.63 × 10–5 0.630 (0.451, 0.882) 2.22 × 10–3 **
Sleeping 6+ hours (males) 0.905 (0.640, 1.277) 0.623 1.029 (0.627, 1.690) 1.000  
Difficulty falling asleep (females) 2.140 (1.694, 2.710) 3.23 × 10–10 1.997 (1.427, 2.796) 1.93 × 10–3 **
Difficulty falling asleep (males) 1.399 (1.023, 1.915) 0.039 1.293 (0.825, 2.027) 0.744  
Difficulty staying asleep 1.979 (1.666, 2.354) 1.85 × 10–14 2.108 (1.765, 2.517) 2.22 × 10–15 ***
Sleepwalking 1.530 (1.193, 1.968) 1.15 × 10–3 1.542 (1.202, 1.979) 1.79 × 10–3 **
Sleep talking 1.295 (1.079, 1.555) 7.66 × 10–3 1.288 (1.071, 1.550) 0.010 *
Bedwetting (females) 2.166 (1.516, 3.120) 2.26 × 10–5 2.039 (1.229, 3.383) 1.93 × 10–3 **
Bedwetting (males) 1.316 (0.861, 2.026) 0.243 1.169 (0.637, 2.147) 1.000  
Frequent night terrors†† 3.248 (2.536, 4.185) 6.82 × 10–22 3.109 (2.424, 3.989) 2.22 × 10–15 ***
Excessive drowsiness†† 2.290 (1.930, 2.720) 2.78 × 10–21 2.179 (1.833, 2.590) 2.22 × 10–15 ***
Narcolepsy 2.980 (1.346, 7.260) 6.08 × 10–3 3.460 (1.576, 7.595) 3.72 × 10–3 **
Sleep apnea 1.578 (1.146, 2.183) 6.75 × 10–3 1.645 (1.187, 2.280) 4.91 × 10–3 **
  1. The adjusted model typically refers to binomial logistic regression adjusting for age, biological sex, ethnicity, education, and country of residence. In a sensitivity analysis controlling for interaction of sex and diagnosis, if we found a significant interaction, we have reported sex-specific values from binomial logistic regression adjusting for age, biological sex, interaction of biological sex and diagnosis, ethnicity, education, and country of residence
  2. †† Exact p-value was < 2.22 × 10–16 and could not be precisely determined; for the purposes of the FDR calculations, we estimated this p-value as equal to 2.22 × 10–16, in order to provide the most conservative analysis
  3. Significance level: *** (p < 0.001), ** (p < 0.01), * (p < 0.05), ▲ (p < 0.10)
  4. OR = odds ratio; 95% CI = 95% confidence interval; FDR = false discovery rate; Sig. = significance level