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Table 3 Biomarkers and exposures measured in the EMA Study, by study phase and time point

From: A profile and review of findings from the Early Markers for Autism study: unique contributions from a population-based case–control study in California

Category Biomarker/exposure Phase 1 Phase 2
Maternal Neonatal Maternal Neonatal
Immune-related factors Cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-1B, INF-γ, TNF-a)a X X X X
Chemokines (IL-8, IL-12, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, MIP-1β, RANTES, GM-CSF, Eotaxin)a X X X X
C-reactive protein (CRP) X   X  
Antibodies to Infectious Agents (CMV-IgG, EBV-IgG, HHV-6-IgG, HSV-1, HSV-2, Influenza A, Influenza B, VZV, Toxo-IgG, Toxo-IgA, Toxo-IgM) X (Toxo only) X   
Autoantibodies to fetal brain protein X   X  
Immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE) X X (no IgE)   
Additional endogenous factors Hormones (TSH, SHBG, bioactive androgen) X X (TSH only)   X (TSH only)
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) X X   
25(OH)D    X X
Environmental chemicals EDCs including:
PBDEs (6 of 10 congeners sufficiently detectedb: BB153, BDEs-28, -47, -99, -100, and -15)
PCBs (11 of 37 congeners sufficiently detected: 28, 99, 118, 138/158, 153, 170, 180, 187, 194, 196/203, 199)
OCPs (2 of 11 pesticides sufficiently detectedb: trans-nonachlor, p,p’-DDE)
PFAS (8 measured: Et-PFOSA-AcOH, Me-PFOSA-AcOH, PFHxS, PFNA, PFOA, PFOS sufficiently detectedb; PFDeA and PFOSA examined as binary detect/non-detect variables)
Mercury X X   
Prenatal air pollution exposure: PM2.5, PM10, O3, NO2    X  
Genetic factors Candidate genes (HERV-K, BDNF, CD48, ApoE, Ltabtnf1, Apobec3g, OAS1, IL-1α (889), IL-1β (511), IL-6 (174), IFN-γ, IL-10 (1082, 592, 819) X X   
CNVs    X  
  1. GWAS genome wide association study, TSH thyroid stimulating hormone, BDNF brain derived neurotrophic factor, 25(OH)D 25-hydroxyvitamin D (vitamin D), EDCs endocrine disrupting chemicals, PBDEs polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PCBs polychlorinated biphenyl ethers, OCP organochlorine pesticide, PFAS perfluoroalkyl substances. Maternal biomarkers were measured in mid-pregnancy (15–19 weeks gestation) serum samples; neonatal biomarkers were measured from newborn blood spots
  2. aA larger set of cytokines and chemokines were measured in phase 2 than in phase 1; see Fig. 2a, b and Additional file 1: Appendix for a complete list
  3. bDefined as detected above the LOD in at least 60% of the study population