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Table 2 Demographic characteristics of the EMA study population by study phase and diagnostic group

From: A profile and review of findings from the Early Markers for Autism study: unique contributions from a population-based case–control study in California

  Phase 1 Phase 2
ASD
N = 84
ID
N = 49
GP
N = 160
ASD
N = 545
ID
N = 181
GP
N = 439
Maternal age, mean (std) 30.9 (5.2) 28.3 (5.2) 28.2 (5.5) 29.9 (5.6) 27.2 (6.3) 28.7 (5.4)
Paternal age, mean (std) 34.0 (6.3) 33.0 (7.9) 31.0 (6.4) 35.7 (14.6) 36.9 (21.2) 34.0 (14.2)
Child gestational age in days, mean (std) 272.1 (18.5) 266.0 (27.9) 271.1 (14.2) 274.3 (27.1) 268.2 (30.2) 279.0 (36.1)
Child sex (%)
 Male 87% 59% 88% 82% 57% 83%
 Female 13% 41% 12% 18% 43% 17%
 Multiparous (%) 50% 67% 58% 55% 66% 62%
Maternal birth place (%)
 US 54% 33% 45% 50% 44% 48%
 Mexico 11% 45% 36% 24% 46% 31%
 Other 36% 22% 19% 26% 10% 21%
Maternal race/ethnicity (%)
 Non-Hispanic White 44% 18% 34% 35% 18% 33%
 Asian 23% 18% 18% 15% 5% 11%
 Black, Pacific Islander, Other 7% 6% 3% 9% 7% 8%
 Hispanic 24% 57% 46% 40% 70% 47%
 Missing 2% 0% 0% 1% 0.6% 0.7%
Maternal education (%)
 Less than high school 8% 47% 31% 18% 42% 24%
 High school 18% 18% 25% 22% 28% 27%
 Some college/college degree 48% 27% 29% 41% 23% 34%
 Post-graduate 25% 8% 16% 18% 6% 13%
 Missing 1% 0% 0% 1.5% 1% 1%
Intellectual disability (%)a
 Yes 40% 100% 0% 52% 100% 0%
 No 36%    41%   
 Unknown 24%    7%   
  1. ASD autism spectrum disorder, ID intellectual disability group without ASD as defined in text, GP general population controls
  2. aDefined according to scores < 70 on cognitive tests in the DDS record