Skip to main content

Table 1 Demographics for autistic and general population samples

From: RETRACTED ARTICLE: Improving the measurement of alexithymia in autistic adults: a psychometric investigation and refinement of the twenty-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale

  SPARK (n = 743) HPP (n = 721)
Age (years) 30.91 (7.02) 30.92 (13.01)
Sex
 Male 271 (36.5%) 253 (35.1%)
 Female 472 (63.5%) 468 (64.9%)
Gender identity
 Cisgender man 245 (33.0%)
 Cisgender woman 400 (53.8%)
 Transgender man 15 (2.0%)
 Transgender woman 6 (0.8%)
 Non-binary 76 (10.2%)
Non-hispanic white 590 (79.4%)
Education
 No high school diploma 25 (3.4%)
 High school diploma/GED 140 (18.8%)
 Vocational certificate 36 (4.8%)
 Some college 197 (26.5%)
 Associate degree 74 (10.0%)
 Bachelor’s degree 171 (23.0%)
 Graduate/professional degree 100 (13.5%)
Age of autism diagnosis (years) 19.67 (11.17)
Current depression 440 (59.2%)
Current anxiety 533 (71.7%)
Current suicidality 292 (39.3%)
Lifetime ADHD 342 (46.0%)
TAS-20 total score 60.55 (13.11) 50.21 (11.21) a
TAS-16 total score (Prorated)b 61.26 (14.17) 51.38 (10.92)
TAS-8 latent trait score 1.01 (1.17) 0.01 (0.93)
"High alexithymia" (TAS-20 ≥ 61) 405 (54.5%) 123 (17.1%)a
  1. Continuous variables are presented as M (SD), and categorical variables are presented as N (%). All data in both samples were gathered by self-report
  2. SPARK Simons Powering Autism Research Knowledge, HPP Human Penguin Project, ADHD attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, TAS Toronto Alexithymia Scale
  3. aParticipants in the HPP sample completed a 16-item version of the TAS (TAS-16), which excluded items 16, 17, 18, and 20. For comparison with the TAS-20 scores in the SPARK sample, these four items were imputed for all HPP participants using random forest imputation
  4. bCalculated as mean of all non-missing TAS-16 items multiplied by 20, for comparison with TAS-20 scores