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Table 2 COVID-19 pandemic-related change in depression and anxiety symptoms

From: The psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adults with autism: a survey study across three countries

  Autism
M (SD)
Non-autism
M (SD)
Depression symptoms   
Total adapted PHQ-9 score 3.57 (0.71) 3.30 (0.56)
 Little interest or pleasure doing things 3.41 (1.06) 3.27 (0.86)
 Feeling down, depressed, or hopeless 3.70 (1.07) 3.42 (0.89)
 Trouble falling or staying asleep or too much sleep 3.86 (1.02) 3.51 (0.94)
 Feeling tired or having little energy 3.79 (1.03) 3.46 (0.96)
 Poor appetite or overeating 3.71 (0.91) 3.46 (0.80)
 Feeling bad about yourself—or that you are a failure or have let yourself or your family down 3.54 (1.05) 3.31 (0.81)
 Trouble concentrating on things, such as reading the newspaper or watching television 3.59 (1.00) 3.26 (0.79)
 Moving or speaking so slowly that other people could have noticed 3.26 (0.77) 3.01 (0.56)
 Thought that you would be better off dead, or of hurting yourself 3.22 (0.95) 2.97 (0.70)
Impact: How difficult have these problems made it for you to do your work, take care of things at home, or get along with other peoplea 2.39 (0.89) 1.82 (0.73)
Anxiety symptoms   
Total adapted GAD-7 score 3.62 (0.82) 3.38 (0.60)
 Feeling nervous, anxious, or on edge 3.77 (1.06) 3.58 (0.87)
 Not being able to stop or control worrying 3.63 (1.00) 3.40 (0.78)
 Worrying too much about different things 3.67 (1.01) 3.41 (0.75)
 Trouble relaxing 3.66 (1.03) 3.39 (0.87)
 Being so restless that it’s hard to sit still 3.31 (0.91) 3.06 (0.64)
 Becoming easily annoyed or irritable 3.64 (1.05) 3.46 (0.87)
 Feeling afraid as if something awful might happen 3.63 (0.97) 3.39 (0.75)
Impact: How difficult have these problems made it for you to do your work, take care of things at home, or get along with other people?a 2.39 (0.88) 1.85 (0.69)
  1. Autism group: n = 613, non-autism group: n = 431; Questions were rated on a five-point scale going from 1 (‘significantly less than usual’) to 5 (‘significantly more than usual’), except for the additional impact questions that were rated on a 4 point rating scale going from 1 (‘not difficult at all’) to 4 (‘extremely difficult’)
  2. aOnly includes participants that indicated 'slightly/significantly more than usual' to any of the above items. Adapted PHQ-9: autism group n = 524, non-autism group n = 340; adapted GAD-7: autism group n = 504, non-autism group n = 330