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Table 1 Demographic data per group

From: The psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on adults with autism: a survey study across three countries

  Autism
M (SD)/n (%)
Non-autism
M (SD)/n (%)
Age 38.36 (11.59) 38.38 (14.14)
Sex (female)a 409 (68.4%) 309 (71.86%)
Years of education 16.77 (4.98) 17.12 (4.77)
Employment status   
 Student 57 (9.3%) 53 (12.3%)
 Self-employed 28 (4.6%) 35 (8.1%)
 Employed (part- and full-time) 278 (45.3%) 265 (61.4%)
 Unable to work due to disability 164 (26.8%) 26 (6.0%)
 Homemaker 20 (3.3%) 3 (0.7%)
 Seeking work 44 (7.2%) 17 (3.9%)
 Retired 22 (3.6%) 32 (7.4%)
Country of residence   
 Belgium 305 (49.8%) 212 (49.2%)
 The Netherlands 124 (20.2%) 120 (27.8%)
 The UK 184 (30.0%) 99 (23.0%)
AQ-short 86.03 (11.79) 58.99 (13.87)
 Social behavior 72.18 (10.11) 48.74 (12.19)
 Social skills 22.46 (4.09) 14.84 (5.31)
 Routine 13.12 (2.24) 9.24 (2.88)
 Switching 13.55 (2.16) 9.08 (2.90)
 Imagination 23.05 (4.78) 15.58 (4.19)
 Numbers and patterns 13.85 (3.59) 10.26 (3.71)
Other diagnosesb   
 ADHD 93 (15.2%) 19 (4.4%)
 Mood disorder 210 (34.3%) 44 (10.2%)
 Anxiety disorder 158 (25.8%) 36 (8.4%)
 Other 79 (12.9%) 11 (2.6%)
 None 261 (42.6%) 355 (82.4%)
  1. Autism group: n = 613, non-autism group: n = 431
  2. a3 cases that indicated intersex (autism group n = 3; non-autism group n = 0) and 13 cases that indicated ‘prefer not to say’ (autism group n = 12; non-autism group n = 1) are not included in the percentages of sex, due to an insufficient number of cases
  3. b Following the DSM-5 (e.g. ADHD includes ADD). Examples of ‘other’ category: trauma and stress-related, obsessive–compulsive, psychotic, eating, personality, learning disorders