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Table 1 ASD-vulnerable cell types (selected studies)

From: Mind the translational gap: using iPS cell models to bridge from genetic discoveries to perturbed pathways and therapeutic targets

Cell type Evidence References
Excitatory/inhibitory neurons or NPCs Enrichment of ASD risk genes in cell type-specific transcriptional modules Parikshank et al. [29]
Expression of modules of ASD risk genes in post-mortem cortical brain Xu et al. [31]
ASD-patient derived organoids produce an excess of GABAergic inhibitory neurons Mariani et al. [145]
Differentially expressed genes in transcriptomic data (ASD patient brain sample versus controls) Gandal et al. [146]
Expression of modules of ASD risk genes in single cell transcriptomic data of different human cell types Wang et al. [147]
Differentially expressed genes in single cell transcriptomic data (ASD patient cortex samples versus controls) Valmesh et al. [36]
Expression of modules of ASD risk genes in BrainSpa transcriptomic data and scRNA-seq data of human cortex Satterstrom et al. [28]
Interneurons GABAergic interneurons reduced in the autistic cerebral cortex Hashemi et al. [148]
Reduced number or activity in several mouse models Filice et al. [149]
Sensory neurons ASD-like behaviors in mice with conditional mutations of Mecp2, Gabrb3, or Shank3 in peripheral sensory neurons Orefice et al. [49]
Oligodendrocytes Dysregulation found in two ASD mouse models Phan et al. [150]
Microglia Deficient autophagy impairs synaptic pruning and induces behavioral defects in mouse models Kim et al. [151]
Differentially expressed genes in single cell transcriptomic data (ASD patient cortex samples versus controls) Valmesh et al. [36]
Astrocytes Interleukin-6 secretion from astrocytes in ASD individuals induces neural defects Russo et al. [152]
Immune Cells Neuroinflammation, autoantibodies, an elevated T cell response, an increase in NK cell and monocyte responses in mouse models Mead et al. [153]