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Table 1 Characterization of sample merged across ABIDE I and II Cluster masks are overlaid on inflated brain maps generated by BrainNet Viewer

From: Towards robust and replicable sex differences in the intrinsic brain function of autism

ABIDE I + II Sitesa ASD M (N = 362) ASD F (N = 82) NT M (N = 409) NT F (N = 166) Statistics Post-hoc
N Mean (SD) [Range] Mean (SD) [Range] Mean (SD) [Range] Mean (SD) [Range]
Age 13 11.8 (2.6) [7–17.9] 11.7 (2.7) [7–18] 11.8 (2.6) [7.1–18.2] 11.4 (2.3) [7.8–17.4] F(3) = 1.18 p = 0.32  
Full-Scale IQb 13 106 (16.6) [72–148] 104 (16.3) [73–147] 112 (12.7) [73–148] 114 (12.7) [80–144] F(3) = 19.24 p < 0.001 (ASD M = ASD F) < (NT M = NT F)
Verbal IQc 12 107 (17.9) [57–180] 105 (17.3) [62–145] 114 (13.5) [73–147] 114 (14.4) [83–146] F(3) = 16.78 p < 0.001 (ASD M = ASD F) < (NT M = NT F)
Performance IQd 12 106 (17.0) [59–157] 104 (17.1) [67–148] 109 (14.2) [62–147] 109 (13.2) [79–145] F(3) = 3.1 p = 0.03 (ASD M = ASD F) < (NT M = NT F)
Mean FD 13 0.11 (0.07) [0.02–0.39] 0.13 (0.09) [0.02–0.39] 0.09 (0.06) [0.02–0.39] 0.09 (0.06) [0.02–0.38] H(3) = 29.6 p < 0.001 (ASD M = ASD F) < (NT M = NT F)
ADI-R
Sociale 11 19.7 (5.2) [4–30] 19.6 (5.5) [7–30] t(93) = 0.14 p = 0.89  
Communicationf 11 15.6 (4.5) [2–25] 15.2 (5.0) [4–24] t(92) = 0.61 p = 0.54  
RRBf 11 6.0 (2.4) [0–13] 5.8 (2.5) [0–12] t(96) = 0.51 p = 0.61  
ADOS-2
Social-Affectg 11 9.1 (3.7) [1–20] 8.7 (3.2) [4–18] t(87) = 0.97 p = 0.33  
RRBh 11 3.2 (1.8) [0–8] 2.8 (1.5) [0–5] t(93) = 1.79 p = 0.08  
CSS totali 11 6.9 (2.1) [1–10] 6.8 (1.8) [2–10] t(93) = 0.11 p = 0.32  
   N N    Statistics Post-hoc
Comorbidity 5 99j 25k χ2(1) = 0.2 p = 0.66  
Psychoactive medication 10 112 26 χ2(1) < 0.01 p = 0.99  
  1. ABIDE Autism Brain Imaging data exchange, ADI-R Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised, ADOS-2 Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule-2, ASD Autism Spectrum Disorder, CSS Calibrated Severity Score, F females, IQ intellectual quotient, M males, Mean FD mean framewise displacement [54]; NT neurotypical, RRB restricted repetitive behaviors
  2. aABIDE I data collections: KKI, Leuven2, NYU, OHSU, Pitt, SDSU, Stanford, UCLA1, UM1, and Yale. ABIDE II data collections: ABIDEII-GU1, ABIDEII-KKI1, ABIDEII-KKI2, ABIDEII-NYU1, ABIDEII-OHSU1, ABIDEII-SDSU1, ABIDEII-UCD1 and ABIDEII-UCLA1. KKI and ABIDEII-KKI1, NYU and ABIDEII-NYU1, SDSU and ABIDEII-SDSU1, OHSU and ABIDEII-OHSU1 and UCLA1 and ABIDEII-UCLA1 were merged into one site across ABIDE I and ABIDE II collections
  3. bFIQ was available for 362 males with ASD (2 missing from UM1, ABIDEII-SDSU1), 81 females with ASD (1 missing from ABIDEII-GU1), 407 neurotypical males (NT M) [3 missing from ABIDEII-GU1 (N = 1), UM1 (N = 2)] and all 166 NT females (NT F)
  4. cVIQ was available for 315 males with ASD (47 missing; KKI (N = 14), ABIDEII-OHSU1 (N = 22), OHSU (N = 9), ABIDEII-SDSU1 (N = 1); ABIDEII-UCLA1 (N = 1), 70 females with ASD [12 missing, ABIDEII-GU1 (N = 1), KKI (N = 4), ABIDEII-OHSU1 (N = 7)], 351 NT M [59 missing; ABIDEII-GU1 (N = 1), KKI (N = 23), OHSU (N = 15), ABIDEII-OHSU1 (N = 20)], and 139 NT F [27 missing; KKI (N = 8), ABIDEII-OHSU1 (N = 19)]
  5. dPIQ was available for 306 males with ASD [56 missing; ABIDEII-GU1 (N = 9), KKI (N = 14), OHSU (N = 9), ABIDEII-OHSU1 (N = 22), ABIDEII-UCLA1 (N = 1), UM1, (N = 1)], 67 females with ASD [15 missing; ABIDEII-GU1 (N = 4), KKI (N = 4), ABIDEII-OHSU1 (N = 7)], 349 NT M [61 missing; ABIDEII-GU1 (N = 1), KKI (N = 23), OHSU (N = 15), ABIDEII-OHSU1 (N = 20), UM1, (N = 2)], 139 NT F [27 missing; KKI (N = 8), ABIDEII-OHSU1 (N = 19)]
  6. eADI-R Social scores were available for 317 males with ASD [45 missing; ABIDEII-GU1 (N = 1), Leuven2 (N = 10), NYU (N = 3), ABIDEII-NYU1 (N = 1), SDSU (N = 2), ABIDEII-UCD1 (N = 11), ABIDEII-UCLA1 (N = 14), UM1, (N = 2), Yale (N = 3)] and 68 females with ASD [14 missing; ABIDEII-GU1 (N = 1), ABIDEII-KKI1 (N = 2), Leuven2 (N = 3), NYU (N = 1), Pitt (N = 1), ABIDEII-UCD1 (N = 3), ABIDEII-UCLA1 (N = 1), Yale (N = 2)]
  7. fADI-R Communication and RRB scores were available for 318 males with ASD [45 missing; ABIDEII-GU1 (N = 1), Leuven2 (N = 10), NYU (N = 2), ABIDEII-NYU1 (N = 1), SDSU (N = 2), ABIDEII-UCD1 (N = 11), ABIDEII-UCLA1 (N = 14), UM1, (N = 2), Yale (N = 3)] and 68 females with ASD [14 missing; ABIDEII-GU1 (N = 1), ABIDEII-KKI1 (N = 2), Leuven2 (N = 3), NYU (N = 1), Pitt (N = 1), ABIDEII-UCD1 (N = 3), ABIDEII-UCLA1 (N = 1), Yale (N = 2)]
  8. gADOS-Gotham Social-Affect was available for 261 males with ASD [101 missing; ABIDEII-GU1 (N = 27), ABIDEII-KKI1 (N = 13), Leuven2 (N = 10), NYU (N = 7), OHSU (N = 11), Pitt (N = 8), SDSU (N = 8), Stanford (N = 6), ABIDEII-UCLA1 (N = 5), UM1 (N = 6), Yale (N = 1)] and 55 females with ASD [27 missing; ABIDEII-GU1 (N = 6), ABIDEII-KKI1 (N = 7), Leuven2 (N = 3), ABIDEII-OHSU1 (N = 1), Pitt (N = 4), Stanford (N = 1), ABIDEII-UCD1 (N = 1), UCLA1 (N = 1), UM1 (N = 3)]
  9. hADOS-Gotham RRB was available for 264 males with ASD [98 missing; ABIDEII-GU1 (N = 27), ABIDEII-KKI1 (N = 13), Leuven2 (N = 10), NYU (N = 7), OHSU (N = 11), Pitt (N = 8), SDSU (N = 8), Stanford (N = 3), ABIDEII-UCLA1 (N = 5), UM1 (N = 6), Yale (N = 1)] and 56 females with ASD [26 missing; ABIDEII-GU1 (N = 6), ABIDEII-KKI1 (N = 7), Leuven2 (N = 3), ABIDEII-OHSU1 (N = 1), Pitt (N = 4), ABIDEII-UCD1 (N = 1), UCLA1 (N = 1), UM1 (N = 3)]
  10. iADOS-Gotham calibrated severity scores [65] were available for 347 males with ASD (15 missing) and 77 females with ASD (5 missing)
  11. jAttention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD; N = 63); anxiety disorder (N = 22); Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD; N = 17); mood disorder (N = 11); Tourettes/Tics (N = 6); Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder (OCD; N = 6); enuresis (N = 8); encopresis (N = 4); developmental articulation disorder (N = 1); developmental dyslexia (N = 1); sensory integration disorder (N = 1)
  12. kADHD (N = 17); anxiety disorder (N = 7); ODD (N = 10); mood disorder (N = 2); OCD (N = 2); enuresis (N = 2); encopresis (N = 1). The three group means were compared with ANOVA tests (or Kruskal–Wallis test in the case of non-parametric mean FD) followed by post-hoc pairwise t test comparisons (or Mann–Whitney U tests in the case of non-parametric mean FD) when statistically significant (significance cut-off set at p < 0.05)