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Table 3 Rates of impairment on measures of autistic traits, empathy and emotion recognition in EP young adults & term-born controls

From: Extremely preterm birth and autistic traits in young adulthood: the EPICure study

  Extremely preterm Term-born controls EP vs controls
Unadjusted
EP vs controls
Adjusted for age, sex & SES
%(n/N) %(n/N) OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p
Empathy Quotienta       
 Total score       
  High empathy 69.6% (71/102) 90.0% (54/60)
  Low empathy 30.4% (31/102) 10.0% (6/60) 3.93 (1.53, 10.09) 0.004+ 3.48 (1.32, 9.18) 0.012+
BAPQ b       
 Mean aloof       
  Present 19.7% (23/117) 4.9% (3/61) 4.73 (1.36, 16.46) 0.015 4.72 (1.26, 17.62) 0.021
 Mean rigid       
  Present 27.4% (31/113) 11.5% (7/61) 2.92 (1.20, 7.10) 0.018 2.53 (1.01, 6.34) 0.047
 Mean pragmatic       
  Present 39.8% (45/113) 13.1% (8/61) 4.38 (1.91, 10.09) 0.001+ 4.49 (1.81, 11.12) 0.001+
 Mean total score       
  Present 31.2% (34/109) 8.5% (5/59) 4.90 (1.80, 13.33) 0.002+ 4.87 (1.67, 14.15) 0.004+
FEFA2c       
 Total       
  High recognition 69.9% (86/123) 95.2% (60/63)
  Low recognition 30.1% (37/123) 4.8% (3/63) 8.60 (2.54, 29.20) 0.001+ 8.26 (2.39, 28.47) 0.001+
 Happy       
  High recognition 94.3% (116/123) 96.8% (61/63)
  Low recognition 5.7% (7/123) 3.2% (2/63) 1.84 (0.37, 9.13) 0.455 2.19 (0.42, 11.45) 0.354
 Sad       
  High recognition 88.6% (109/123) 96.8% (61/63)
  High recognition 11.4% (14/123) 3.2% (2/63) 3.92 (0.86, 17.81) 0.077 3.77 (0.80, 17.76) 0.093
 Fear       
  High recognition 90.2% (111/123) 98.4% (62/63)
  Low recognition 9.8% (12/123) 1.6% (1/63) 6.70 (0.85, 52.78) 0.071 6.80 (0.85, 54.38) 0.071
 Angry       
  High recognition 79.7% (98/123) 96.8% (61/63)
  Low recognition 20.3% (25/123) 3.2% (2/63) 7.78 (1.78, 34.02) 0.006 6.67 (1.50, 29.64) 0.013
 Surprised       
  High recognition 91.1% (112/123) 93.7% (59/63)
  Low recognition 8.9% (11/123) 6.3% (4/63) 1.45 (0.44, 4.75) 0.541 1.47 (0.43, 4.98) 0.540
 Disgusted       
  High recognition 76.4% (94/123) 96.8% (61/63)
  Low recognition 23.6% (29/123) 3.2% (2/63) 9.41 (2.17, 40.87) 0.003+ 10.52 (2.35, 47.05) 0.002+
 Neutral       
  High recognition 89.4% (110/123) 93.7% (59/63)
  Low recognition 10.6% (13/123) 6.3% (4/63) 1.74 (0.54, 5.59) 0.350 1.62 (0.48, 5.42) 0.437
  1. aEmpathy Quotient: (1) high empathy: total score > 30 (reference group); (2) low empathy (total score ≤ 30)
  2. bBAPQ cut-off scores from self-reports of Sasson et al. [[31]], reference group for each scale: not present
  3. cFrankfurt Test and Training of Facial Affect Recognition 2nd Edition: (1) high recognition (reference group): ≥ -2SD of controls; (2) low recognition: < − 2SD of controls
  4. +Significant after Bonferroni correction (p < 0.013 BAPQ; p < 0.006 FEFA; no correction for EQ)