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Table 2 Outcome measures and effects of oxytocin treatment. Mean pre-to-post change scores are listed separately for each treatment group (oxytocin, placebo) and assessment session (T1, T2, T3). Cohen’s d effect sizes of between-group differences are reported separately for each outcome measure and assessment session. T and p values correspond to single-sample t tests assessing within-group changes from baseline separately for the oxytocin and placebo group

From: Behavioral effects of multiple-dose oxytocin treatment in autism: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial with long-term follow-up

Outcome measureOxytocinPlaceboBetween-group difference
NMean ± SDT valuepNMean ± SDT valuepCohen’s d
Multiple-dose effect (T1)
 Primary outcomes
  SRS-A self-report22− 5.55 ± 11.40− 2.280.03318− 1.06 ± 10.01− 0.450.66−0.42
  SRS-A informant-based170.0 ± 15.860.001.0015− 0.87 ± 12.83− 0.260.800.10
 Secondary outcomes  
  RBS-R22− 4.77 ± 6.47− 3.460.00217− 1.76 ± 4.75− 1.530.15− 0.63
  SAAM avoidance22− 0.40 ± 0.71− 2.630.016180.06 ± 0.980.240.81− 0.61
  SAAM security220.27 ± 0.771.620.1218− 0.05 ± 0.66− 0.310.760.63
  SAAM anxiety22− 0.14 ± 0.75− 0.900.38180.28 ± 0.951.240.23− 0.62
  IPPA Peers221.45 ± 3.851.770.091180.56 ± 4.050.580.570.30
  IPPA Mother21− 0.52 ± 2.71− 0.880.39180.44 ± 3.450.550.59− 0.39
  IPPA Father210.43 ± 3.300.600.5618− 0.61 ± 3.81− 0.680.500.29
  WHO-QOL221.77 ± 8.041.030.3117− 1.35 ± 6.74− 0.830.420.63
 Profile of mood states
  Tension22− 2.00 ± 2.29− 4.100.000518− 2.39 ± 3.03− 3.340.0040.14
  Anger220.00 ± 4.050.001.0018− 0.61 ± 2.73− 0.950.350.18
  Depression22− 1.14 ± 4.50− 1.190.2518− 0.33 ± 2.81− 0.500.62− 0.21
  Vigor22− 1.00 ± 2.53− 1.860.07718− 2.94 ± 3.64− 3.430.0030.62
  Fatigue22− 2.09 ± 3.99− 2.460.02318− 1.11 ± 5.12− 0.920.37− 0.21
One-month retention effect (T2)
 Primary outcomes
  SRS-A self-report22− 5.64 ± 12.57− 2.100.04818− 7.67 ± 12.09− 2.690.0150.22
  SRS-A informant-based17− 9.59 ± 10.98− 3.600.00215− 1.20 ± 10.73− 0.430.67− 0.83
 Secondary outcomes         
  RBS-R22− 4.91 ± 6.33− 3.640.00217− 2.35 ± 3.43− 2.830.012− 0.50
  SAAM avoidance22− 0.38 ± 0.70− 2.580.01818− 0.06 ± 0.76− 0.350.73− 0.53
  SAAM security220.04 ± 1.010.180.8618− 0.40 ± 0.99− 1.700.110.62
  SAAM anxiety220.08 ± 1.050.360.72180.11 ± 0.870.540.60− 0.05
  IPPA Peers221.32 ± 3.711.670.11180.06 ± 3.700.060.950.45
  IPPA Mother21− 0.38 ± 3.43− 0.510.62180.06 ± 4.350.050.96− 0.14
  IPPA Father210.52 ± 3.590.670.5118− 0.33 ± 3.87− 0.370.720.31
  WHO-QOL221.14 ± 5.480.970.34170.35 ± 4.530.320.750.24
 Profile of mood states
  Tension22− 2.64 ± 2.80− 4.410.000218− 2.11 ± 3.22− 2.760.013− 0.17
  Anger220.36 ± 3.680.460.6518− 0.39 ± 3.91− 0.420.680.20
  Depression22− 0.82 ± 2.63− 1.460.16180.22 ± 3.410.280.79− 0.34
  Vigor220.14 ± 3.580.180.8618− 1.44 ± 4.33− 1.420.170.40
  Fatigue22− 2.69 ± 2.71− 4.630.000118− 2.33 ± 4.47− 2.210.04− 0.09
One-year retention effect (T3)
 Primary outcomes
  SRS-A self-report22− 8.59 ± 20.95− 1.920.0718− 6.72 ± 21.01− 1.360.19− 0.12
  SRS-A informant-based17− 7.41 ± 19.26− 1.590.1315− 4.13 ± 24.64− 0.650.53− 0.18
 Secondary outcomes
  RBS-R22− 4.91 ± 9.46− 2.430.0217− 0.41 ± 4.27− 0.400.70− 0.98
  SAAM avoidance22− 0.52 ± 1.18− 2.070.05180.0 ± 0.750.001.00− 0.80
  SAAM security220.20 ± 1.52− 0.620.5418− 0.14 ± 0.66− 0.910.37− 0.05
  SAAM anxiety220.17 ± 0.940.830.42180.11 ± 1.210.390.700.06
  IPPA Peers220.68 ± 6.260.510.61181.28 ± 4.171.300.21− 0.20
  IPPA Mother210.33 ± 3.910.390.70181.50 ± 5.441.170.26− 0.30
  IPPA Father210.57 ± 4.080.640.5318− 0.50 ± 4.53− 0.470.650.33
  WHO-QOL221.14 ± 8.370.640.53170.29 ± 4.210.290.780.27
 Profile of mood states
  Tension22− 1.86 ± 2.29− 3.810.00118− 2.28 ± 3.46− 2.790.0120.14
  Anger220.59 ± 3.690.750.46180.06 ± 3.840.060.950.14
  Depression220.50 ± 2.630.890.3818− 0.28 ± 3.51− 0.340.740.25
  Vigor221.14 ± 3.881.370.1818− 0.61 ± 3.27− 0.790.430.50
  Fatigue22− 0.23 ± 6.04− 0.180.86180.39 ± 4.730.350.73− 0.11
  1. SRS-A Social Responsiveness Scale adult version, RBS-R Repetitive Behavior Scale-Revised, SAAM State Adult Attachment Measure, IPPA Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment, WHO-QOL World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire. Screening for mood changes are based on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) questionnaire. For SRS-A, RBS-R, SAAM avoidance, SAAM anxiety, and POMS tension, anger, depression and fatigue; negative scores indicate pre-to-post improvement. Cohen’s d effect sizes (change from baselineOT–change from baselinePL)/pooled SD) are reported where 0.2 is indicative of a small effect, 0.5 a medium effect and 0.8 a large effect. Data printed in bold show Cohen’s d effect sizes equal to or larger than .50 (medium-sized effect)