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Fig. 2 | Molecular Autism

Fig. 2

From: Targeting the RHOA pathway improves learning and memory in adult Kctd13 and 16p11.2 deletion mouse models

Fig. 2

Exploration activity in the a open field test, b novel object location and c novel object recognition of the Kctd13+/− and the 16p11.2 Del/+ mouse models at 12 and 13 weeks of age. a Male mice from the Kctd13+/− line [wt (n = 20) and Kctd13+/− (n = 19)] and from the 16p11.2 Del/+ line [wt (n = 38) and Del/+ (n = 32)] were free to explore the open field for 30 min as a new environment. First, the exploration activity was analysed from the total distance travelled during the test. Next, the adaptation of the mice to the environment was evaluated by dividing the test into periods of 10 min. The Kctd13+/− animals showed no alteration compared to their wt littermate whereas the 16p11.2 Del/+ mice showed increased exploratory activity in the distance travelled compared to wt. The Del/+ mutant individuals displayed a decrease in the area of exploration during the test and thus normal habituation to the new environment. b In the NOL test, the recognition index reflects the ability of mice from the two lines [wt (n = 20) and Kctd13+/− (n = 21) littermates; and 16p11.2 Del/+ (wt (n = 28) and Del/+ (n = 27) littermates] to distinguish the new located object from the familiar one after a 5 min retention delay. The Kctd13+/− and the Del/+ male mice showed a deficit in object location recognition memory compared to their wt littermates. c In the NOR test, the animals [wt (n = 24) and Kctd13+/− (n = 23) littermates; and wt (n = 27) and Del/+ (n = 30) littermates] were challenged to recognize the new object from the familiar object after a 3 h delay. Kctd13+/− and the Del/+ mice showed a poor object recognition memory compared to their respective wt littermates; (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01; ***p < 0.001)

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