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Table 1 Chi-square tests of independence in the female amniotic fluid for testosterone

From: Developmental vitamin D deficiency increases foetal exposure to testosterone

Female amniotic fluid testosterone Detectable levels Undetectable levels Sample size Chi-square tests of independence
n n N
Control 41 51 92 X2 (1) = 6.59
DVD-deficient 56 32 88 p < 0.008
  1. In female amniotic fluid, testosterone levels were very low with many 0 values in the control sample. Therefore data were analysed non-continuously via Chi-squared test. n = 92 control females, n = 88 DVD females