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Fig. 4 | Molecular Autism

Fig. 4

From: Targeting PPARα in the rat valproic acid model of autism: focus on social motivational impairment and sex-related differences

Fig. 4

Fenofibrate treatment decreased repetitive behavior of VPA females and perseverative behavior of VPA rats of both sexes. Stereotyped movements (self-grooming and lickings) and locomotor activities (c, d) were examined in VPA and saline male and female rats treated with SD or FBR. a Two-way ANOVA, VPA exposure: F1, 44 = 33.73, p < 0.0001; FBR administration: F1, 44 = 3.22, n.s.; interaction: F1, 44 = 0.011, n.s. b Two-way ANOVA, VPA exposure: F1, 44 = 18.32, p < 0.0001; FBR administration: F1, 44 = 7.80, p = 0.0077; interaction: F1, 44 = 6.23, p = 0.0163; post hoc comparison: ***p < 0.001 vs. saline-SD group; ##p < 0.01 vs. VPA-SD. c Two-way ANOVA, VPA exposure: F1, 44 = 4.14, p = 0.0479; FBR administration: F1, 44 = 2.61, n.s.; interaction: F1, 44 = 0.63, n.s. d Two-way ANOVA, VPA exposure: F1, 44 = 9.52, p = 0.0035; FBR administration: F1, 44 = 0.028, n.s.; interaction: F1, 44 = 2.23, n.s. Values are expressed as mean ± SEM; n = 12. Marble burying activity test (e) was employed to estimate the effects of prenatal VPA exposure and postnatal FBR treatment on perseverative behavior (e) of male (f) and female rats (g). F Two-way ANOVA, VPA exposure: F1, 44 = 15.80, p = 0.0003; FBR administration: F1, 44 = 1.35, n.s.; interaction: F1,44 = 8.68, p = 0.0051; post hoc comparison: ***p < 0.001 vs. saline-SD group; #p < 0.05 vs. VPA-SD group. g Two-way ANOVA, VPA exposure: F1, 44 = 1.08, n.s.; FBR administration: F1, 44 = 3.74, n.s.; interaction: F1,44 = 11.21, p = 0.0017; post hoc comparison: *p < 0.05 vs. saline-SD group; ##p < 0.01 vs. VPA-SD group. Values are expressed as mean ± SEM; n = 12

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