Skip to main content
Fig. 3 | Molecular Autism

Fig. 3

From: Advanced paternal age as a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders: a translational study

Fig. 3

Deficits in ultrasonic communication during rough-and-tumble play in APA rats. ac Emission of pro-social 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) [n/min] on the (a) first, (b) second, and (c) third testing day. d, e Exemplary spectrograms of pro-social 50-kHz USV emitted during the third testing day by a pair of (d) CONT and (e) APA rats. fh Social and playful behavior [n/5min] on the (f) first, (g) second, and (h) third testing day. i, j Exemplary ethograms depicting frequency and duration of playful (namely pinning, wrestling, and chasing) and other social events (namely sniffing and physical contact) displayed on the third testing day by a pair of (i) CONT and (j) APA rats. *p < .05

Back to article page