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Table 3 Co-occurring patterns of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) in 87 individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD)

From: Prevalence and cumulative incidence of autism spectrum disorders and the patterns of co-occurring neurodevelopmental disorders in a total population sample of 5-year-old children

Co-occurring NDDsn%
 None (i.e., ASD alone)1011.49
 ADHD alone or ADHD and other NDDs4450.57
 DCD alone or DCD and other NDDs5563.22
 ID alone or ID and other NDDs3236.78
 BIF alone or BIF and other NDDs1820.69
Number of co-occurring NDDsn%
 01011.49
 12528.74
 23236.78
 32922.99
  1. *Totals may not add up because each pattern can overlap
  2. (for example, individuals with ASD, ADHD, and DCD can be included in "ADHD alone or ADHD and other NDDS" and "DCD alone or DCD and other NDDS").
  3. ADHD attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ASD autism spectrum disorder, BIF borderline intellectual functioning (defined as IQ between 70 and 85 in this study), DCD developmental coordination disorder, ID intellectual disability, NDD neurodevelopmental disorder