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Fig. 3 | Molecular Autism

Fig. 3

From: Tsc1 haploinsufficiency in Nkx2.1 cells upregulates hippocampal interneuron mTORC1 activity, impairs pyramidal cell synaptic inhibition, and alters contextual fear discrimination and spatial working memory in mice

Fig. 3

Deficit in spatial working memory in Barnes maze. ac Graphs of latency (a), distance traveled (b), and number of errors (c) in reaching the goal box during acquisition (days 1–4), primary search of the long-term reference memory probe test (day 5), reversal learning (days 6–7), and primary search of the long-term working memory probe test (day 8). Nkx2.1Cre/wt;Tsc1f/wt mutant and control mice performed similarly in all aspects of the tasks (n = 14 Wt (Nkx2.1wt/wt;Tsc1f/wt) and 20 Tg (Nkx2.1Cre/wt;Tsc1f/wt) mice; Friedman ANOVA and Mann-Whitney tests for paired comparisons, p > 0.05), except that Nkx2.1Cre/wt;Tsc1f/wt mutant mice traveled a greater distance to reach the goal in the primary search of the working memory probe test relative to control mice (b, day 8; Student’s t test, *p < 0.05). d Impaired precision of long-term memory during the total search of the working memory probe test (day 8). Graphs of number of visits to all escape holes (left) and number of visits expressed as target versus average of all non-target holes (right). Control mice visited the target holes more often than the non-target holes, but Nkx2.1Cre/wt;Tsc1f/wt mutant mice did not (ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc comparisons, ***p < 0.001, ns p > 0.05). In addition, Nkx2.1Cre/wt;Tsc1f/wt mutant mice visited the target holes less often than control mice (*p < 0.05)

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