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Fig. 2 | Molecular Autism

Fig. 2

From: Tsc1 haploinsufficiency in Nkx2.1 cells upregulates hippocampal interneuron mTORC1 activity, impairs pyramidal cell synaptic inhibition, and alters contextual fear discrimination and spatial working memory in mice

Fig. 2

Impairment in contextual fear discrimination. a Normal anxiety and locomotion in open-field test. Graphs showing similar (left) time spent in periphery and center of the open field, and (right) total distance traveled by Nkx2.1Cre/wt;Tsc1f/wt mutant and control mice (n = 6 Wt (Nkx2.1wt/wt;Tsc1f/wt) and 11 Tg (Nkx2.1Cre/wt;Tsc1f/wt) mice; ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc comparisons, p > 0.05). bd Impaired contextual fear discrimination in Nkx2.1Cre/wt;Tsc1f/wt mutant relative to control mice (n = 16 Wt and 16 Tg). Graphs showing similar freezing time during contextual fear conditioning (b ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc comparisons, p > 0.05) and in the long-term contextual memory test in the training and novel contexts (c ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc comparisons, p > 0.05). Plot of discrimination ratio (freezing time in training context/freezing time in training + novel context) showing impaired discrimination in Nkx2.1Cre/wt;Tsc1f/wt mutant relative to control mice (Student’s t test; *p < 0.05)

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