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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of participants (means and standard deviations, in addition to minimum and maximum values)

From: Sex differences in the first impressions made by girls and boys with autism

  ASD (N= 40) TD (N= 53) Effects
Sex ratio 15f, 25m (62.5% Male) 25f, 28m (53% male) χ2 = .52, p = .47
Race Black/African American 5% (n = 2)
White/Caucasian 85% (n = 34)
Asian or Pacific Islander 2.5% (n = 1)
Multiracial 5% (n = 2)
Other 2.5% (n = 1)
Black/African American 22.6% (n = 12)
White/Caucasian 60.4% (n = 32)
Asian or Pacific Islander 3.7% (n = 2)
Multiracial 13.2% (n = 7)
Other 0% (n = 0)
χ2 = 9.68, p = .05
Maternal education High school or less 7.5% (n = 3)
Bachelor’s or less 40% (n = 16)
Graduate degree 50% (n = 20)
Not reported 2.5% (n = 1)
High school or less 5.7% (n = 3)
Bachelor’s or less 53% (n = 28)
Graduate degree 42% (n = 22)
Not reported 0% (n = 0)
χ2 = 1.27, p = .53
  Female Male Female Male Sex Dx Sex in ASD
Age (years) 10.89 (2.30)
7.5–16.3
12.07 (3.27)
7.2–17.9
10.23 (2.70)
6.4–15.5
9.44 (1.89)
6.9–14.1
p = .99
d = .01
p = .002
d = − .69
p = .23
d = .40
Full-scale IQ 107.9 (11.23)
79–124
106.40 (13.68)
78–131
108.12 (12.46)
86–131
110.96 (12.43)
86–133
p = .70
d = .08
p = .30
d = .22
p = .72
d = − .12
Verbal IQ 105.80 (10.29)
85–122
106.20 (13.33)
83–130
109.04 (12.82)
80–128
109.21 (13.77)
86–131
p = .92
d = .02
p = .25
d = .24
p = .92
d = .03
Non-verbal IQ 107.80 (14.98)
80–130
105.32 (13.63)
78–130
104.76 (13.03)
81–129
108.54 (12.46)
82–130
p = .68
d = .09
p = .83
d = .05
p = .59
d = − .18
ADOS-2 CSS Total 6.60 (2.29)
3–10
7.00 (1.80)
2–10
1.08 (0.28)
1–2
1.32 (0.48)
1–2
p = .28
d = .10
p < .001
d = − 4.21
p = .54
d = .20
ADOS-2 SA CSS 6.53 (2.20)
3–10
7.36 (1.66)
3–10
1.44 (0.77)
1–3
1.75 (0.84)
1–3
p = .07
d = .17
p < .001
d = − 3.89
p = .19
d = .44
ADOS-2 RRB CSS 7.27 (1.75)
5–10
6.44 (2.14)
1–10
1.32 (1.11)
1–5
1.86 (1.92)
1–7
p = .94
d = -.01
p < .001
d = − 2.87
p = .22
d = − .41
SCQ Total 17.79 (7.39)
6–31
17.56 (7.88)
4–33
2.00 (2.24)
0–8
2.50 (3.05)
0–14
p = .86
d = .02
p < .001
d = − 2.87
p = .93
d = − .03
  1. SCQ scores were missing for 1 ASD female. ADOS-2 CSS calibrated severity score, SA CSS Social affect calibrated severity score, RRB CSS Repetitive behaviors/restricted interests calibrated severity score. Chi-squared tests with Yates’ continuity correction tested for diagnostic group differences in sex ratio and maternal educational attainment. P values and Cohen’s d values for main effects of sex and diagnosis are shown, as well as p and Cohen’s d values of sex differences in the ASD group only