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Table 4 Twin model associations between cortical volume, surface area and thickness of neocortical regions of interest (ROIs) and RRBI symptoms

From: Sex differences in brain structure: a twin study on restricted and repetitive behaviors in twin pairs with and without autism

ROIs NeocorticalCortical volumeSurface areaCortical thickness
Males β (SD)
q
Females β (SD)
q
Males β (SD)
q
Females β (SD)
q
Males β (SD)
q
Females β (SD)
q
Right lateral orbital sulcus 25.1921.64 0.780.95 0.030.02
(18.5)(17.93)(8.86)(9.59)(0.016)(0.02)
0.8890.5540.9710.9760.7520.667
Left lateral orbital sulcus 10.3547.58 6.752.470.000.06
(13.23)(24.76)(6.79)(8.49)(0.02)(0.04)
0.8950.2460.9710.9760.9990.42
Right middle frontal sulcus 62.16 5.56 23.665.970.00 0.003
(75.19)(93.0)(20.28)(30.69)(0.02)(0.02)
0.8950.9620.9710.9760.9990.91
Left middle frontal sulcus 46.9127.27 3.273.45 0.01 0.01
(70.37)(64.08)(22.93)(18.61)(0.02)(0.02)
0.8950.8940.9710.9760.9240.715
Right orbital gyrus19.63138.567.079.8 0.010.05
(57.06)(49.29)(15.3)(16.91)(0.01)(0.02)
0.9310.1780.9710.9760.9230.056
Left orbital gyrus97.56 3.7211.84 7.860.0040.019
(62.59)(77.79)(13.27)(15.18)(0.02)(0.02)
0.7140.9620.9710.9760.9840.667
Right middle frontal gyrus83.36285.6310.6895.290.01 0.02
(138.41)(143.27)(35.28)(34.68)(0.009)(0.02)
0.8950.2460.9710.0720.9240.608
Left middle frontal gyrus 11.5687.3818.9413.73 0.01 0.001
(160.84)(173.55)(35.76)(36.58)(0.01)(0.02)
0.9440.8540.9710.9760.9230.955
Right inferior frontal orbital gyrus61.59 25.210.41 100.020.07
(22.08)(36.49)(4.38)(7.67)(0.03)(0.02)
0.1900.8400.5640.7690.9240.065
Left inferior frontal orbital gyrus6.1530.121.050.840.010.02
(19.3)(28.32)(4.38)(5.88)(0.02)(0.02)
0.9310.6090.9710.9760.9240.667
Right anterior cingulate cortex3.65 45.16 14.55 8.860.0070.002
(51.55)(90.27)(24.12)(26.81)(0.02)(0.01)
0.9440.8540.9710.9760.9240.910
Left anterior cingulate cortex74.3664.4715.225.20.0050.019
(81.02)(59.73)(27.96)(16.14)(0.01)(0.01)
0.8950.6090.9710.9760.9260.416
Right postcentral gyrus98.9995.2413.8624.140.0170.01
(85.47)(51.44)(23.53)(19.86)(0.02)(0.02)
0.8890.2560.9710.7780.9230.715
Left postcentral gyrus53.83 20.6925.34 1.880.0070.005
(61.86)(93.6)(25.32)(34.76)(0.02)(0.02)
0.8950.9000.9710.9760.9260.828
Right postcentral sulcus 143.9352.32 64.79.430.0060.02
(90.46)(66.92)(36.76)(29.48)(0.01)(0.008)
0.7140.7820.9330.9760.9240.14
Left post central sulcus58.03 71.7917.06 27.950.0030.015
(86.65)(50.89)(41.72)(25.47)(0.01)(0.01)
0.8950.5250.9710.7780.9840.416
Right precentral gyrus 45.01 22.53 7.7820.51 0.003 0.02
(82.87)(71.65)(24.97)(18.62)(0.02)(0.019)
0.9000.9000.9710.7780.9840.482
Left precentral gyrus 78.1762.855.932.14 0.011 0.019
(108)(75.17)(18.81)(21.36)(0.02)(0.01)
0.8950.7640.9710.5960.9240.143
Right inferior precentral sulcus 38.95 4.84 26.551.94 0.006 0.010
(51.56)(51.05)(20.55)(19.71)(0.017)(0.016)
0.8950.9620.9710.9760.9260.715
Left inferior precentral sulcus26.8 13.62 0.84 9.55 0.0020.013
(54.84)(54.21)(16)(19.95)(0.012)(0.01)
0.9000.9000.9710.9760.9840.550
Right superior precentral sulcus49.29 23.5610.740.850.014 0.021
(40.37)(62.97)(16.76)(28.51)(0.01)(0.014)
0.8860.9000.9710.9760.9230.453
Left superior precentral sulcus12.362.6713.5615.890.00020.015
(44.33)(46.71)(20.63)(19.52)(0.010)(0.011)
0.9380.5250.9710.9350.9990.482
Right central sulcus17.4659.85929.72 0.006 0.008
(73.4)(44.51)(32.77)(18.95)(0.007)(0.007)
0.9420.5250.9710.5960.9230.607
Left central sulcus5.4538.7 5.2816.56 0.001 0.005
(37.96)(64.97)(17.64)(33.12)(0.009)(0.008)
0.9420.8540.9710.9760.9880.715
Right superior frontal sulcus 27.93269.97 21.481.830.0180.011
(146.59)(129.92)(45.76)(37.33)(0.009)(0.014)
0.9420.2460.9710.2560.7520.667
Left superior frontal sulcus14.56108.86 11.4630.680.0120.005
(104.96)(90.84)(36.81)(28.44)(0.009)(0.012)
0.9420.5540.9710.7780.9230.746
Right superior frontal gyrus63.05237.18 5.0966.530.0110.007
(158.88)(121.69)(45.05)(34.86)(0.011)(0.009)
0.9310.2460.9710.4060.9230.698
Left superior frontal gyrus 278.67 363.82 96.72− 130.440.0170.028
(156.8)(187.75)(44.93)(47.07)(0.009)(0.012)
0.7140.2460.5640.0720.7520.143
Right supramarginal gyrus134.421.49 3.2715.280.0300.012
(107.4)(93.84)(23.98)(35.15)(0.026)(0.025)
0.8890.9000.9710.9760.9230.746
Left supramarginal gyrus 152.85 248.39 34.84 53.37 0.007 0.012
(97.63)(119.75)(39)(35.18)(0.015)(0.019)
0.7140.2460.9710.5960.9240.715
Right superior parietal gyrus 52.18 62.37.1 24.15 0.015410.011
(103.56)(111.09)(29.1)(33.94)(0.01462)(0.011)
0.9000.85410.97090.97630.92280.6287
Left superior parietal gyrus 58.8453.9136.091.72 0.024 0.002
(93.96)(201.92)(31.37)(52.12)(0.025)(0.021)
0.89510.9000.9710.9760.9230.942
Right intraparietal sulcus38.48 169.7815.22− 120.610.0110.037
(111.05)(88.27)(53.82)(39.45)(0.011)(0.010)
0.9310.2460.9710.0720.9230.012
Left intraparietal sulcus 51.4397.68 26.3125.490.0080.018
(80.57)(95.6)(36.84)(47.17)(0.009)(0.011)
0.8950.6140.9710.9760.9230.416
Right angular gyrus 284.76150.72 61.86 32.72 0.0200.055
(150.54)(114.9)(38.01)(38.6)(0.023)(0.028)
0.7140.5250.9330.9350.9230.244
Left angular gyrus 113.0771.55 1.2925.98 0.019 0.027
(146.84)(128.96)(35.37)(29.82)(0.029)(0.028)
0.8950.8540.9710.9350.9240.658
  1. Estimates (B), standard deviations (SD) and q values (q) for the within-pair associations between all surface-based neocortical measures (volume, surface area, and thickness) and repetitive behavior symptoms, as assessed by the ADI-R C. A positive estimate indicates an increase in brain estimate related to more repetitive behavior symptoms. Bold text indicates significant associations (FDR-corrected q value < 0.05), while bold and grey text indicate associations with q value < 0.10 (FDR-corrected)