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Table 8 Effect sizes for cross-sectional and longitudinal behavioural risk markers of self-injury over ten years

From: Persistence and predictors of self-injurious behaviour in autism: a ten-year prospective cohort study

 Cross-sectional effect sizes: significant differences between absent/present SIBLongitudinal effect sizes: significant difference between absent/persistent SIB
Risk markersTime 11
N = 149
Time 22
N = 67
Time 3
N = 67
T1T2
3 years
N = 67
T2T3
7 years
N = 46
T1T3
10 years
N = 67
Mood Interest and Pleasure Questionnaire
 MoodOOOOOO
 Interest and pleasureOOOOOO
The Activity Questionnaire
 Impulsivity++++++++++++
 Overactivity+++++O++++
 Impulsive speech+OOO++O
The Repetitive Behaviour Questionnaire
 Compulsive behaviourO++OOOO
 Insistence on samenessOO++O++O
 Stereotyped behaviourO+OOOO
The Social Communication Questionnaire
 CommunicationOOOOOO
 Social interactionO++O++++O
 Repetitive behaviourO++++O++O
  1. Effect sizes are R interpreted with Cohens D (‘O’, none, ‘+’, small, ‘++’, medium, ‘+++’, large)
  2. 1[8]
  3. 2[23]