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Table 1 Descriptive information on the first four children born in analyzed families, on individual-, family-, and inter-pregnancy interval levels

From: Reproductive stoppage in autism spectrum disorder in a population of 2.5 million individuals

Individual level descriptive informationChildren with ASD diagnosisChildren without ASD diagnosis
 Number of individuals (% of total)26,842 (1.1)2,476,592 (98.9)
 Number of individuals (column %)Number of individuals (column %)
 SexMale19,081 (71.1)1,268,115 (51.2)
 Female7761 (28.9)1,208,477 (48.8)
 Birth order115,383 (57.3)1,254,634 (50.7)
 28414 (31.3)889,411 (35.9)
 32472 (9.2)270,100 (10.9)
 4573 (2.1)62,447 (2.5)
 Maternal age< 201084 (4.0)74,574 (3.0)
 20–246173 (23.0)476,466 (19.2)
 25–299292 (34.6)852,599 (34.4)
 30–346912 (25.8)730,188 (29.5)
 35–392868 (10.7)292,915 (11.8)
 40–44494 (1.8)47,978 (1.9)
 ≥ 4519 (0.1)1872 (0.1)
 Paternal age< 20872 (3.2)103,102 (4.2)
 20–243103 (11.6)219,819 (8.9)
 25–297487 (27.9)659,913 (26.6)
 30–347933 (29.6)788,390 (31.8)
 35–394518 (16.8)456,482 (18.4)
 40–441841 (6.9)169,901 (6.9)
 45–49731 (2.7)54,048 (2.2)
 ≥ 50357 (1.3)24,937 (1.0)
Family level descriptive informationFamilies with children with ASD diagnosisaFamilies without children with ASD diagnosisa
 Number of families (% of total)25,489 (2.0)1,244,528 (98.0)
 Childbearing rateTotal number of children (% of total)b61,842 (2.4)2,480,416 (97.6)
 Mean family size2.42.0
 Total years of follow-up451,368.416,145,609.0
 Average years of follow-up per mother17.613.0
 Rate (children/1000 years)137.7153.6
 Number of families (column %)Number of families (column %)
 Family size13813 (15.0)368,379 (29.6)
 211,873 (46.6)613,380 (49.3)
 36714 (26.3)202,838 (16.3)
 42118 (8.3)43,233 (3.5)
 ≥ 5971 (3.8)16,698 (1.3)
 Highest maternal education levelInformation not available171 (0.7)36,829 (3.0)
 Primary and lower secondary education less than 9 years469 (1.8)31,339 (2.5)
 Primary and lower secondary education 9 years2386 (9.4)81,628 (6.6)
 Upper secondary education 1–2 years6581 (25.8)221,040 (17.8)
 Upper secondary education 3 years5466 (21.4)296,444 (23.8)
 Post-secondary education less than 3 years3867 (15.2)182,915 (14.7)
 Post-secondary education 3 years or longer6304 (24.7)379,577 (30.5)
 Postgraduate education245 (1.0)14,756 (1.2)
Inter-pregnancy intervals
Initial birth before January 1, 2012
Inter-pregnancy intervals with an immediately prior born child with ASD diagnosisInter-pregnancy intervals with an immediately prior born child without ASD diagnosis
 Number of inter-pregnancy intervals (% of total)26,831 (1.2)2,269,306 (98.8)
 Inter-pregnancy intervals that ended with a birth (% within each group)16,156 (60.2)1,230,071 (54.2)
  Number of inter-pregnancy intervals (% per birth interval and group)Number of inter-pregnancy intervals (% per birth interval and group)
 Inter-pregnancy intervalsObserved 1st to 2nd11,636 (75.7)882,951 (76.1)
 Censored 1st to 2nd3742 (24.3)277,066 (23.9)
 Observed 2nd to 3rd3451 (41.0)268,023 (33.1)
 Censored 2nd to 3rd4962 (59.0)542,798 (66.9)
 Observed 3rd to 4th844 (34.2)61,803 (25.4)
 Censored 3rd to 4th1623 (65.8)181,271 (74.6)
 Observed 4th to 5th225 (39.3)17,294 (31.2)
 Censored 4th to 5th348 (60.7)38,100 (68.8)
  Mean time (standard deviation)Mean time (standard deviation)
 Observed 1st to 2nd3.5 (2.5)3.3 (2.1)
 Censored 1st to 2nd15.3 (6.7)10.9 (7.8)
 Observed 2nd to 3rd4.4 (2.9)4.3 (2.8)
 Censored 2nd to 3rd15.1 (5.6)11.9 (6.7)
 Observed 3rd to 4th4.2 (3.0)3.9 (2.7)
 Censored 3rd to 4th13.8 (5.0)10.7 (5.9)
 Observed 4th to 5th3.5 (2.4)3.5 (2.4)
 Censored 4th to 5th12.3 (4.5)9.2 (5.1)
  1. ASD autism spectrum disorder
  2. aFamilies with children with ASD diagnosis refers to families where any of the four first-born children receive an ASD diagnosis; families without children with ASD diagnosis are the families where no one of the four first-born children receive any ASD diagnosis
  3. bAll children included, not limited to first- to fourth-born