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Table 1 Summary of studies

From: Biological motion perception in autism spectrum disorder: a meta-analysis

Author(s) (year) ASD sample NT sample Paradigm Measure Stimuli Duration(s) g var. g SE (g) WoE SQA
N Age Sex ratio FSIQ NVIQ N Age Sex ratio FSIQ NVIQ
Actis-Grosso et al. [49] 20 22.8 15/5 118.9 / 25 22.3 21/4 / / AR Accuracy PLD (13 strips) 3 (max 5 min) − 0.2 0.09 0.04 8.5 0.71
Alaerts et al. [50] 12 12/2 13.8 / 100.3 16 13/3 14.2 / 106.7 ER Accuracy PLD (12 points) 3 0.78 0.15 0.07 8 0.73
12 12/2 13.8 / 100.3 16 13/3 14.2 / 106.7 ER RT PLD (12 points) 3 4.62 0.52 0.14
15 15/0 21.7 107.9 105.6 15 15/0 23.3 114.8 109.1 ER Accuracy PLD (12 points) 3 4.93 0.53 0.13
15 15/0 21.7 107.9 105.6 15 15/0 23.3 114.8 109.1 ER RT PLD (12 points) 3 − 1.53 0.17 0.08
Alaerts et al. [30] 15 21.7 15/0 107.9 105.6 15 23.3 15/0 114.8 109.1 D d′ PLD (12 points) 4 0.66 0.13 0.07 8.5 0.82
Annaz et al. [13] 23 8.83 / / / 34 8.25 / / / D d′ PLD (13 points) 1 1.15 0.08 0.04 8.5 0.8
23 8.83 / / / 34 8.25 / / / D Thresholds PLD (13 points) 1 0.89 0.08 0.04
Atkinson [19] 13 30.9 12/1 106.2 105.2 16 26.7 14/2 106.6 108.4 ER Accuracy PLD (ns) and FLD 3 1.17 0.16 0.07 8.5 0.84
Binnerslеy [51] 14 12.917 14/0 / / 15 / / / / D d' PLD (15 points) 1 0.22 0.13 0.07 8.5 0.8
Blake et al. [16] 12 / / / / 9 8.417 / / / D d' PLD 1 1.13 0.21 0.10 8 0.73
Cook et al. [52] 16 34.1 14/2 114.8 109 16 33.3 14/2 113 113 D Thresholds FLD / 2.82 0.24 0.09 9 0.86
Couture et al. [53] 36 20.9 29/7 101.3 / 41 22.9 34/7 109.4 / ER Accuracy PLD (12 points) 5–20 0.31 0.05 0.03 8 0.84
36 20.9 29/7 101.3 / 41 22.9 34/7 109.4 / ER Accuracy PLD (12 points) 5–20 0.75 0.05 0.03
Cusack et al. [54] 15 16.09 15/0 103.1 / 15 15.54 15/0 104.8 / AR Thresholds PLD (13 points) 2.5 0.18 0.13 0.07 8 0.82
18 16.09 18/0 103.1 / 18 15.54 18/0 104.8 / AR Thresholds PLD (13 points) 2.5 − 0 0.11 0.06
18 16.09 18/0 103.1 / 18 15.54 18/0 104.8 / D Thresholds PLD (13 points) 1.5 0.3 0.11 0.06
15 16.09 15/00 103.1 / 15 15.54 15/00 104.8 / D Thresholds PLD (13 points) 1.5 − 0.4 0.13 0.07
15 16.09 15/00 103.1 / 15 15.54 15/00 104.8 / D Thresholds PLD (13 points) 2 − 0.4 0.13 0.07
Edey et al. [55] 20 41.1 15/5 115.53 / 17 38.76 14/3 118.24 / D d' FLD / − 0.05 0.1 0.05 8.5 0.91
22 36.77 18/5 111.18 / 24 31.21 23/1 105.46 / D d’ FLD / − 0.26 0.08 0.04
Freitag et al. [31] 15 17.5 13/2 101.2 93.3 15 18.6 13/2 112.1 106.8 D Error rates PLD 1.5 1.21 0.16 0.07 9 0.84
15 17.5 13/2 101.2 93.3 15 18.6 13/2 112.1 106.8 D RT PLD 1.5 3.14 0.31 0.10
Frideson-Hayo et al. [23] 20 7.45 18/2 / / 22 7.5 19/3 / / ER Accuracy FLD 4–24 0.97 0.1 0.05 8.5 0.95
20 7.45 18/2 / / 22 7.5 19/3 / / ER Accuracy FLD 4–24 1.28 0.11 0.05
16 8.58 15/1 / / 18 7.8 13/5 / / ER Accuracy FLD 4–24 1.15 0.13 0.06
16 8.58 15/1 / / 18 7.8 13/5 / / ER Accuracy FLD 4–24 0.31 0.11 0.06
19 6.97 15/4 / / 18 7.36 15/3 / / ER Accuracy FLD 4–24 0.41 0.11 0.05
19 6.97 15/4 / / 18 7.36 15/3 / / ER Accuracy FLD 4–24 0.46 0.11 0.05
Hubert et al. [9] 19 21.5 17/2 83.3 / 19 24.33 17/2 / / ER Accuracy PLD (5 & 10 points) 5 2.12 0.16 0.06 7.5 0.64
19 21.5 17/2 83.3 / 19 24.33 17/2 / / AR Accuracy PLD (5 & 10 points) 5 0.85 0.11 0.05
19 21.5 17/2 83.3 / 19 24.33 17/2 / / AR Accuracy PLD (5 & 10 points) 5 1.8 0.14 0.06
Jones et al. [17] 89 15.5 81/8 82.1 91.4 52 15.5 49/3 88.4 91.8 D Thresholds PLD (5 & 10 points) 5 0.3 0.03 0.01 8.5 0.77
Karuppali [56] 4 5.3 2/2 / / 4 4.625 2/2 / / AR Accuracy PLD (15 points) 500–2000 3.25 1.04 0.36 7.5 0.69
Koldewyn et al. [22] 30 15.12 28/2 107.8 104.7 32 15.78 30/2 121.3 114.2 D Thresholds PLD (13 points) 2 0.82 0.07 0.03 8.5 0.82
30 15.12 28/2 107.8 104.7 32 15.78 30/2 121.3 114.2 D RT PLD (13 points) 2 − 0.09 0.06 0.03
Koldewyn et al. [57] 16 15.4 14/2 110.6 106.7 16 15.6 14/2 118.6 112.6 D Thresholds (75%) PLD (13 points) 2 1.01 0.13 0.06 8.5 0.86
Krakowski [58] 35 10.48 31/4 105.4 108.3 46 11.22 24/22 114 108.2 D d' PLD / 0.6 0.05 0.02 8.5 0.84
Kroger et al. [59] 17 11.9 17/0 / / 21 11.63 21/0 / / D Accuracy PLD (15 points) 1 − 0.2 0.1 0.05 9 0.86
17 11.9 17/0 / / 21 11.63 21/0 / / D RT PLD (15 points) 1 0.21 0.1 0.05
Kruger et al. [60] 16 34.7 12/4 / / 16 35 12/4 / / AR Accuracy PLD (13 points) 4 − 0.1 0.12 0.06 8 0.73
McKay et al. [14] 10 28.6 10/0 125 / 10 27.9 / 124.8 / AR Thresholds (50%) PLD (15 points) 1 0.34 0.19 0.10 8.5 0.73
10 28.6 10/0 125 / 10 27.9 / 124.8 / AR Thresholds (75%) PLD (15 points) 1 0.8 0.2 0.10
Morrison et al. [61] 106 24.28 95/11 108.9 / 95 24.17 84/11 116.28 / D d' PLD / 0.06 0.02 0.01 8.5 0.91
106 24.28 92/11 108.9 / 95 24.17 84/11 116.28 / ER Accuracy PLD 5–10 0.61 0.02 0.01
Murphy et al. [10] 16 25.56 13/3 / / 16 26.4 13/3 / / D d' PLD (11 points) ~ 6.5 0.23 0.12 0.06 8.5 0.84
16 25.56 13/3 / / 16 26.4 13/3 / / D d' PLD (11 points) ~ 6.5 0.32 0.12 0.06
16 25.56 13/3 / / 16 26.4 13/3 / / D d' PLD (11 points) ~ 6.5 0.27 0.12 0.06
16 25.56 13/3 / / 16 26.4 13/3 / / D d' PLD (11 points) ~ 6.5 0.46 0.12 0.06
16 25.56 13/3 / / 16 26.4 13/3 / / D d' PLD (11 points) ~ 6.5 0.29 0.12 0.06
16 25.56 13/3 / / 16 26.4 13/3 / / D Error rates PLD (11 points) ~ 6.5 0.53 0.12 0.06
16 25.56 13/3 / / 16 26.4 13/3 / / D Error rates PLD (11 points) ~ 6.5 0.45 0.12 0.06
16 25.56 13/3 / / 16 26.4 13/3 / / D Error rates PLD (11 points) ~ 6.5 0.37 0.12 0.06
16 25.56 13/3 / / 16 26.4 13/3 / / D Error rates PLD (11 points) ~ 6.5 0.45 0.12 0.06
16 25.56 13/3 / / 16 26.4 13/3 / / D Error rates PLD (11 points) ~ 6.5 0.19 0.12 0.06
16 25.56 13/3 / / 16 26.4 13/3 / / D RT PLD (11 points) ~ 6.5 0.58 0.12 0.06
16 25.56 13/3 / / 16 26.4 13/3 / / D RT PLD (11 points) ~ 6.5 0.46 0.12 0.06
16 25.56 13/3 / / 16 26.4 13/3 / / D RT PLD (11 points) ~ 6.5 0.22 0.12 0.06
16 25.56 13/3 / / 16 26.4 13/3 / / D RT PLD (11 points) ~ 6.5 0.29 0.12 0.06
16 25.56 13/3 / / 16 26.4 13/3 / / D RT PLD (11 points) ~ 6.5 0.27 0.12 0.06
Nackaerts et al. [15] 12 34.9 7/5 111.5 105.7 12 31.5 7/5 115.5 115.3 ER Accuracy PLD (12 points) 3 1.71 0.22 0.10 8 0.8
12 34.9 7/5 111.5 105.7 12 31.5 7/5 115.5 115.3 D d' PLD (12 points) 3 1.28 0.19 0.09
12 34.9 7/5 111.5 105.7 12 31.5 7/5 115.5 115.3 D Accuracy PLD (12 points) 3 1.12 0.18 0.09
Parron et al. [12] 23 11.583 20/3 93.7 89 23 12 20/3 / / ER Accuracy PLD (10 points) ~5 5.51 0.41 0.09 8.5 0.73
23 11.583 20/3 93.7 89 23 12 20/3 / / AR Accuracy PLD (10 points) ~5 1.9 0.12 0.05
23 11.583 20/3 93.7 89 23 12 20/3 / / AR Accuracy PLD (10 points) ~5 3.08 0.19 0.06
Philip et al. [48] 23 32.5 16/7 101.5 104.4 23 32.4 17/6 111.2 113.4 ER Accuracy FLD 5–10 1.6 0.11 0.05 9 0.84
Price et al. [45] 14 14.14 14/0 / 57.14 16 14.08 16/0 / 52.63 D Accuracy PLD 5 1.14 0.15 0.07 8.5 0.8
14 14.14 14/0 / 57.14 16 14.08 16/0 / 52.63 D d' PLD 5 0.82 0.14 0.07
14 14.14 14/0 / 57.14 16 14.08 16/0 / 52.63 D d' PLD 5 0.64 0.13 0.07
Saygin et al. [11] 16 33.75 13/3 112.2 107.2 20 37.75 14/7 113.2 108.6 D Thresholds PLD (12 points) 0.583 0.08 0.11 0.06 8 0.73
Sotoodeh et al .[62] 20 11.3 17/3 / 77.3 20 11.4 17/3 / 106 AR Accuracy PLD (13 points) 2s (3 times) 0.85 0.1 0.05 9 0.82
20 11.3 17/3 / 77.3 20 11.4 17/3 / 106 AR RT PLD (13 points) 2s (3 times) 1.85 0.14 0.06
Swettenham et al. [63] 13 9.583 / / / 13 8.5 / / / AR Accuracy PLD (13 points) / 0.39 0.15 0.08 8.5 0.77
Turi et al. [64] 19 11.49 16/3 105.9 / 18 11.94 14/4 107.6 / AR d' PLD (23 points) 0.90 ± 0.15 1.64 0.14 0.06 9 0.8
19 11.49 16/3 105.9 / 18 11.94 14/4 107.6 / AR d' PLD (23 points) 0.90 ± 0.15 0.44 0.11 0.05
van Boxtel et al. [20] 16 14.04 12/4 101.5 99.94 17 13.32 13/4 112.2 108.6 AR Thresholds PLD 1 0.27 0.12 0.06 9 0.82
von der Luhe et al. [65] 16 41.56 12/4 116.9 / 16 36.19 10/6 115.3 / D Accuracy PLD 3.6–4.3 0.47 0.12 0.06 8.5 0.89
16 41.56 12/4 116.9 / 16 36.19 10/6 115.3 / D Accuracy PLD 3.6–4.3 0.53 0.12 0.06
Wang et [46]. 21 5.588 17/4 / / 21 4.95 16/5 / / AR Accuracy PLD (11 points) 2 1.07 0.11 0.05 8.5 0.8
Eye-tracking
Annaz et al. [26] 17 5.583 / / / 17 5.5 / / / PV % fixations PLD 6 1.19 0.13 0.06 8.5 0.73
17 5.583 / / / 17 5.5 / / / PV % fixations PLD 6 1.75 0.16 0.07
Burnside et al. [66] 16 5.22 16/0 / / 16 3.98 8/8 / / PV % fixations PLD (13 points) 6 0.29 0.12 0.06 8.5 0.82
Fujioka et al. [28] 21 27.6 21/0 99.8 96.4 35 25.2 35/0 / / D % fixations PLD 20 0.32 0.08 0.04 8 0.8
Fujisawa et al. [29] 15 4.824 12/3 / / 58 4.008 27/31 / / D % fixations PLD 20 − 0.2 0.08 0.03 8 0.73
Nackaerts et al. [15] 12 34.9 7/5 111.5 105.7 12 31.5 7/5 115.5 115.3 ER Fixation time PLD (12 points) 3 3.27 0.38 0.13 8 0.8
12 34.9 7/5 111.5 105.7 12 31.5 7/5 115.5 115.3 AR Fixation time PLD (12 points) 3 2.58 0.29 0.11
EEG
Bernier et al. [67] 14 23.6 0/14 114 107.6 15 26.7 0/15 108.9 105.4 PV mu-power ratio (8–13 HZ) FLD 2.5–20 0.88 0.14 0.07 8.5 0.84
Bernier et al. [68] 19 6.4 18/1 118.3 112 19 6.9 17/2 95.5 96.3 PV mu-power ration (8–13 HZ) FLD 6 − 0.06 0.11 0.05 9 0.77
Hirai et al. [69] 12 15.7 11/1 / / 12 16.5 11/1 / / PV Amplitude N100 PLD 0.990 − 0.21 0.16 0.08 8.5 0.77
12 15.7 11/1 / / 12 16.5 11/1 / / PV Amplitude N100 PLD 0.990 0.71 0.17 0.08
Dumas et al. [70] 10 33.9 7/3 / / 30 28.7 14/16 / / PV mu-power ratio (8–13 HZ) FLD 6 3.29 0.26 0.08 8.5 0.73
10 33.9 7/3 / / 30 28.7 14/16 / / PV mu-power ratio (8–13 HZ) FLD 6 2.83 0.23 0.08
10 33.9 7/3 / / 30 28.7 14/16 / / PV mu-power ratio (8–13 HZ) FLD 6 2.76 0.22 0.07
10 33.9 7/3 / / 30 28.7 14/16 / / PV mu-power ratio (8–13 HZ) FLD 6 0.05 0.13 0.06
10 33.9 7/3 / / 30 28.7 14/16 / / PV mu-power ratio (8–13 HZ) FLD 6 1.95 0.18 0.07
10 33.9 7/3 / / 30 28.7 14/16 / / PV mu-power ratio (8–13 HZ) FLD 6 -0.33 0.13 0.06
10 33.9 7/3 / / 30 28.7 14/16 / / PV mu-power ratio (8–10 HZ) FLD 6 0.17 0.13 0.06
10 33.9 7/3 / / 30 28.7 14/16 / / PV mu-power ratio (8–10 HZ) FLD 6 0.79 0.14 0.06
10 33.9 7/3 / / 30 28.7 14/16 / / PV mu-power ratio (8–10 HZ) FLD 6 − 0.64 0.13 0.06
10 33.9 7/3 / / 30 28.7 14/16 / / PV mu-power ratio (8–10 HZ) FLD 6 − 0.6 0.13 0.06
10 33.9 7/3 / / 30 28.7 14/16 / / PV mu-power ratio (8–10 HZ) FLD 6 − 0.9 0.14 0.06
10 33.9 7/3 / / 30 28.7 14/16 / / PV mu-power ratio (8–10 HZ) FLD 6 − 1.31 0.15 0.06
10 33.9 7/3 / / 30 28.7 14/16 / / PV mu-power ratio (11–13 HZ) FLD 6 4.96 0.44 0.10
10 33.9 7/3 / / 30 28.7 14/16 / / PV mu-power ratio (11–13 HZ) FLD 6 4.92 0.43 0.10
10 33.9 7/3 / / 30 28.7 14/16 / / PV mu-power ratio (11–13 HZ) FLD 6 5.52 0.51 0.11
10 33.9 7/3 / / 30 28.7 14/16 / / PV mu-power ratio (11–13 HZ) FLD 6 3.98 0.33 0.09
10 33.9 7/3 / / 30 28.7 14/16 / / PV mu-power ratio (11–13 HZ) FLD 6 − 4.33 0.36 0.09
10 33.9 7/3 / / 30 28.7 14/16 / / PV mu-power ratio (11–13 HZ) FLD 6 1.9 0.17 0.07
Raymaekers et al. [38] 20 11.158 18/2 103.2 / 19 10.719 14/5 112.7 / PV mu-power ratio (8–13 Hz) FLD 80 0.47 0.1 0.05 9 0.8
20 11.158 18/2 103.2 / 19 10.719 14/5 112.7 / PV mu-power ratio (8–13 Hz) FLD 80 0.48 0.1 0.05
20 11.158 18/2 103.2 / 19 10.719 14/5 112.7 / PV mu-power ratio (8–13 Hz) FLD 80 0.91 0.11 0.05
  1. N sample size, FSIQ full-scale IQ, NVIQ non-verbal IQ, AR action recognition, D BM detection or , ER emotion recognition, PV passive viewing, FLD full-light display, PLD point-light display, d' sensitivity index, g Hedges’ g, var. g estimated variance of g, SE(g) estimated standard error of g, WoE weight of evidence, SQA standard quality assessment score
  2. Papers that only reported performance index (accuracy/RT) or in addition to other findings