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Table 2 Demographic characteristics of children and their parents in the EARLI study, stratified by child diagnosis

From: A meta-analysis of two high-risk prospective cohort studies reveals autism-specific transcriptional changes to chromatin, autoimmune, and environmental response genes in umbilical cord blood

  Child 36 month outcome
ASD (n = 18) Non-TD (n = 48) TD (n = 43) p valuea
Child male gender, n (%) 13 (72.2) 23 (47.9) 19 (44.2) 0.13
Child race and ethnicity, n (%)b     0.02 h
 White (European or Middle Eastern) 6 (35.3) 23 (48.9) 24 (55.8)  
 Black/African-American 3 (17.6) 8 (17) 1 (2.3)  
 Asian or Pacific Islander 2 (11.8) 5 (10.6) 0 (0)  
 Hispanic White 2 (11.8) 3 (6.4) 3 (7)  
 Hispanic Non-White 2 (11.8) 7 (14.9) 8 (18.6)  
 Multiracial 2 (11.8) 1 (2.1) 7 (16.3)  
Mother age (years), mean (SD) 34.4 (4) 33.8 (4.3) 34.7 (5) 0.60
Father age (years), mean (SD) 35.4 (6.8) 35.7 (5) 36.2 (6.4) 0.88
Mother prepregnancy BMI, mean (SD)c 29.4 (7.1) 27.4 (7) 27.9 (7.2) 0.60
Mother smoking by urine cotinine, n (%)d 1 (6.3) 1 (2.3) 0 (0) 0.30
Mother bachelor’s degree +, n (%) 8 (44.4) 28 (58.3) 29 (67.4) 0.26
Father bachelor’s degree +, n (%)e 7 (38.9) 28 (62.2) 25 (58.1) 0.24
Own home, n (%) 8 (44.4) 31 (64.6) 36 (83.7) 0.01 h
Cesarean delivery, n (%)f 9 (56.3) 17 (39.5) 12 (35.3) 0.38
Gestational age (weeks), mean (SD) 39.2 (1.4) 39.4 (1.5) 39.1 (1.5) 0.70
Birth weight (kg), mean (SD)g 3.5 (0.6) 3.5 (0.6) 3.5 (0.6) 1.00
  1. ASD autism spectrum disorder, Non-TD non-typically developing, TD typically developing
  2. ap values from Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables and one-way ANOVA for continuous variables
  3. bFrequency missing = 1 ASD, 1 Non-TD
  4. cFrequency missing = 1 Non-TD
  5. dFrequency missing = 2 ASD, 4 Non-TD, 3 TD
  6. eFrequency missing = 3 Non-TD
  7. fFrequency missing = 2 ASD, 5 Non-TD, 9 TD
  8. gFrequency missing = 1 TD
  9. hNominally-significant association with child diagnosis