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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of children and their parents in the MARBLES study, stratified by child diagnosis

From: A meta-analysis of two high-risk prospective cohort studies reveals autism-specific transcriptional changes to chromatin, autoimmune, and environmental response genes in umbilical cord blood

  Child 36 month outcome
ASD (n = 41) Non-TD (n = 44) TD (n = 77) p valuea
Child male gender, n (%) 30 (73.2) 27 (61.4) 40 (51.9) 0.08
Child race and ethnicity, n (%)     0.90
 White (European or Middle Eastern) 19 (46.3) 18 (40.9) 38 (49.4)  
 Black/African-American 2 (4.9) 2 (4.5) 1 (1.3)  
 Asian or Pacific Islander 4 (9.8) 3 (6.8) 7 (9.1)  
 Hispanic White 8 (19.5) 11 (25) 19 (24.7)  
 Hispanic Non-White 4 (9.8) 3 (6.8) 6 (7.8)  
 Multiracial 4 (9.8) 7 (15.9) 6 (7.8)  
Mother age (years), mean (SD)b 35.4 (5.1) 34.1 (4.3) 33.3 (4.9) 0.09
Father age (years), mean (SD)c 38.7 (5.3) 36.1 (4.8) 35.7 (6.2) 0.02 k
Mother prepregnancy BMI, mean (SD)d 27.9 (7.4) 29.3 (8.3) 26.1 (6.2) 0.05
Mother type 1 diabetes, n (%)e 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (1.3) 1.00
Mother type 2 diabetes, n (%)e 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (1.3) 1.00
Mother gestational diabetes, n (%)f 12 (30) 6 (14.3) 11 (14.7) 0.12
Mother hypertension, n (%)e 1 (2.6) 1 (2.3) 1 (1.3) 1.00
Mother preeclampsia, n (%)g 2 (5.1) 4 (10) 2 (2.7) 0.29
Mother smoking by urine cotinine, n (%)h 4 (17.4) 1 (4.3) 1 (2.9) 0.12
Mother bachelor’s degree +, n (%) 18 (43.9) 19 (43.2) 40 (51.9) 0.57
Father bachelor’s degree +, n (%) 21 (51.2) 19 (43.2) 39 (50.6) 0.69
Own home, n (%)i 21 (55.3) 25 (58.1) 48 (63.2) 0.69
Cesarean delivery, n (%)j 11 (26.8) 17 (38.6) 31 (41.3) 0.28
Gestational age (weeks), mean (SD) 39.4 (1.1) 39 (1.3) 38.7 (1.4) 0.04 k
Birth weight (kg), mean (SD) 3.5 (0.4) 3.5 (0.4) 3.4 (0.5) 0.52
  1. ASD autism spectrum disorder, Non-TD non-typically developing, TD typically developing
  2. ap values from Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables and one-way ANOVA for continuous variables
  3. bFrequency missing = 1 ASD
  4. cFrequency missing = 2 ASD, 1 TD
  5. dFrequency missing = 1 ASD, 1 TD
  6. eFrequency missing = 2 ASD, 1 Non-TD, 1 TD
  7. fFrequency missing = 1 ASD, 2 Non-TD, 2 TD
  8. gFrequency missing = 2 ASD, 4 Non-TD, 2 TD
  9. hFrequency missing = 18 ASD, 21 Non-TD, 42 TD
  10. iFrequency missing = 3 ASD, 1 Non-TD, 1 TD
  11. jFrequency missing = 2 TD
  12. kNominally-significant association with child diagnosis