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Table 2 Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) score differences between the preterm and term ASD groups

From: Behavioral characteristics of autism spectrum disorder in very preterm birth children

ADI-R item ADI-R scorea MANOVA Bonferroni’s correction FDR
Preterm n = 18 Term n = 44 F value P value Wilks lambda P value P value
Domain A: Qualitative abnormalities in reciprocal social interaction      F value = 6.2 P < 0.001   
 A1: Failure to use nonverbal behaviors to regulate social interaction 3.8 (1.9) 3.2 (1.8) 1.7 0.20   1 0.34
 A2: Failure to develop peer relationships 3.9 (2.0) 5.6 (1.8) 10.2 0.002   0.024 0.024
 A3: Lack of shared enjoyment 3.2 (1.8) 3.7 (2.0) 0.9 0.35   1 0.47
 A4: Lack of socioemotional reciprocity 4.1 (2.0) 5.2 (2.3) 3.2 0.08   0.96 0.19
 Total A: A1 + A2 + A3 + A4 14.9 (6.5) 17.6 (6.1) 2.3 0.13    
Domain B: Qualitative abnormalities in communication      F value = 1.5 P = 0.20   
 B1: Lack of or delay in spoken language and failure to compensate through gesture 2.9 (2.4) 3.9 (2.4) 1.4 0.24   1 0.36
 B4: Lack of varied spontaneous make-believe or social imitative play 3.6 (1.7) 4.0 (1.5) 0.2 0.65   1 0.71
 B2(V)b: Relative failure to initiate or sustain conversational interchange 2.8 (1.2) 3.4 (1.1) 3.5 0.07   0.84 0.19
 B3(V)b: Stereotyped, repetitive, or idiosyncratic speech 2.4 (2.0) 3.4 (1.9) 3.1 0.08   0.96 0.19
 Total B(V)b: B1 + B4 + B2(V) + B3(V) 11.8 (5.4) 14.4 (4.3) 3.8 0.06    
Domain C: Restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped behavioral patterns      F value = 1.3 P = 0.28   
 C1: Encompassing preoccupation or circumscribed pattern of interest 1.2 (1.4) 1.8 (1.2) 2.9 0.10   1 0.2
 C2: Apparently compulsive adherence to nonfunctional routines or rituals 1.2 (1.5) 1.4 (1.5) 0.1 0.73   1 0.73
 C3: Stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms 0.8 (1.1) 1.0 (1.0) 0.5 0.49   1 0.59
 C4: Preoccupation with parts of objects or nonfunctional elements of material 1.0 (0.8) 1.5 (0.8) 4.3 0.04   0.48 0.19
 Total C: C1 + C2 + C3 + C4 4.2 (3.1) 5.6 (3.0) 2.8 0.10    
  1. MANOVA multivariate analysis of variance, FDR false discovery rate
  2. aData are expressed as mean (SD)
  3. bScoring only in children with verbal ability