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Table 2 Selection bias in ASD research on intellectual dis/ability for studies that reported data (n = 165)

From: Selection bias on intellectual ability in autism research: a cross-sectional review and meta-analysis

Field Total N Studies where over 75% of the sample had No ID Studies where the entire sample had No ID Estimated % of ASD participants without IDa (95% CI)
N % N %  
Intervention 12 8 67 5 42 87 (68, 99)
Biology 24 22 92 14 58 97 (92, 1.00)
Epidemiology 8 4 50 2 25 84 (43, 100)
Psychology 78 68 87 45 57 97 (94, 99)
Social 23 8 80 9 39 87 (80, 93)
Diagnosis 20 19 83 4 20 84 (82, 94)
Overall 165 136 82 79 48 94 (91, 97)
  1. aCalculated using meta-analysis (i.e. weighted by N per study)